Anemia – Forms, Classification

Anemia is a medical condition which rises in human body due to the deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood and is commonly known as poor man disease. Irrespective of its anemia can cause to any human being from any class of society. There are several types of anemia which can be caused due to various reasons. But what’s important is that it should be taken seriously. The treatment of anemia is done on the basis of its factor. In medical terms anemia is not a disease but a deficiency which leads to other disorder in the body.  There are over 400 types of anemia however most of them are rare. Below are some of the common forms of anemia:

Forms of Anemia

Pernicious Anemia– Pernicious anemia causes due to the lack of Vitamin B12 in the human body. This type of anemia is quite common in age group of 50-60 years. Pernicious anemia is mostly caused due to hereditary factor but in some cases autoimmune disorders also cause Pernicious Anemia.  The symptoms of Pernicious anemia are Dyspnea, fatigue, heat palpitations and numbness or tingling sensation in the body.

Aplastic anemia- Aplastic anemiais generally caused due to the reduction in quantity of red blood cells in human blood. The major cause of Aplasitc anemia is heavy blood loss due to injury or heavy menstruation, exposure to toxins or hepatitis. The reduction in red blood cells make a human body exposed to various infections as less RBC results in decreased fighting ability of the body. The symptoms of aplastic anemia includes pale skin, increased heartbeat, multiple infections, heart failure, heavy bleeding and lethargy.

Sickle cell anemia– Sickle cell anemia is caused in a human body which is suffering from a lifelong disease. In Sickle cell anemia the red blood cells are formed in the form of sickle by human body, these red blood cells are tend to form clumps which get stuck in the blood vessels causing serious organ damage, pain and multiple infections. High fever, rapid heartbeat, fatigue, jaundice, pale skin and severe pain in the body are some of the symptoms of Sickle cell anemia.

Thalassemia – Thalassemia is a genetically inherited disorder which leads to heavy damages to red blood cells. The levels of Thalassemia totally depend upon how much haemoglobin is produced by blood cells during this time. The symptoms of Thalassemia are swelling in liver and spleen, chest pain, dizziness, dark colored urine.

Iron deficiency anemia – Iron deficiency anemia, as the name suggests, is caused due to the deficiency of iron in human body. Iron plays an important role in the production of red blood cells in human body. Any reduction in the quantity of iron in human body can affect the production of red blood cells which causes Iron deficiency anemia.  The deficiency of iron can be due to heavy blood loss, poor diet, chronic illness and gastrointestinal infections. The body suffering from Iron deficiency anemia shows symptoms such as frequent headaches, irritability, brittle hairs and nails, increased heartbeat.

Classification of Anemia

 

Anemia is broadly classified as:

 

Microcytic Anemia– Microcytic Anemia is a term used to characterize a type of anemia which is caused when the size of the red blood cells (RBC) is smaller than the usual. In Microcytic Anemia these red blood cells are even paler than usual RBCs as they cannot perform hemoglobin synthesis. Now Microcytic Anemia is a broad classification and some types of Anemia like Iron deficiency anemia, sideroblastic anemia, and anemia caused due to chronic disease, lead poisoning, pyridoxine deficiency all fall under this category.

 

Macrocytic Anemia- Macrocytic Anemia is again not a disease but a condition in where the red blood cells or RBCs are larger than their usual volume. In Macrocytic Anemia condition the larger red blood cells so the collective number of the cells decreases and also each cell contains insufficient amount of hemoglobin. Macrocytic Anemia can be further classified in two main parts which are known as megaloblastic anemia and non megaloblastic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is caused due to the lack of vitamin b12 or folic acid in human body. Pernicious anemia can be characterized under Macrocytic Anemia as pernicious anemia is caused because of poor capability of human body to absorb vitamin b12.

 

Normocytic Anemia- Normocytic Anemia is caused when size of red blood cell remains normal but the overall level of hemoglobin is increased.  Some types of Anemia caused as a result of chronic disease, hemolytic anemia and aplastic anemia all can be categorized as Normocytic Anemia. Normocytic Anemia can also be caused when a person suffers from acute blood loss.

 

Dimorphic – Dimorphic is a condition when a human body suffers from two or more causes of anemia simultaneously.