The prostate biopsy is taking tissue samples from the prostate gland and examining it under the microscope for cell differentiation. Cancerous cells are shaped and arranged differently than healthy cells. The more differentiated the cancerous cells are from the healthy cells the more aggressive the cancer .If no cancerous cells are reveal through the biopsy, it means either the patient does not have cancer or the biopsy missed the tumor. 75% of men report negative primary biopsy report.

Before the Prostate biopsy:

Before undergoing biopsy the patient has to take antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection after prostate biopsy. He should also stop taking anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin or ibuprofen that may increase the risk of bleeding after biopsy. Finally the doctor may also order an enema before biopsy to remove feces and gas from the rectum that may complicate the process of transrectal biopsy.

Types of Prostate biopsies:

There are three types of prostate biopsies – transrectal, transurethral and transperineal. The transrectal biopsy is guided by transrectal ultrasound through the anus into rectum. The transurethral biopsy is performed with a lighted cytoscope up through the urethra so that the doctor can look directly at the prostate gland. The transperineal biopsy collects the tissue through a small incision in the perineum.

Transrectal Prostate Biopsy

In this biopsy the patient may experience a small amount of bleeding from the rectum after the biopsy. The process uses spring loaded needles to collect the sample tissues.

Transperineal Prostate Biopsy:

Patients opting to undergo the transperineal biopsy may be put under general anesthesia if they wish to be unconscious during biopsy. The patient may experience some tenderness and blood in the semen for one or two months after biopsy.

Transurethral Prostate Biopsy:

In this kind of biopsy the cytoscope is inserted into the urethra. Local anesthesia is given to numb the area. Doctors look directly at the prostate through the cytoscope and insert a cutting loop to extract tissue.

Side effects of Prostate Biopsy:

Though minimal pain is associated with prostate biopsy, men may experience blood in their urine and semen after the test.  Soreness and groggy feeling may also be experienced, for which the patient may need an attendant to be driven home. Repeated test has to be conducted if the tumor is small.

Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine. The victim has a strong, sudden need to urinate but is unable to hold urine. Leaks can occur when you sneeze, laugh, make any physical effort or exercise. It is a hygiene problem, social and psychological, as it influences the daily activities of patients and reduces their quality of life. Incontinence is not a disease itself, but the consequence of an alteration in the bladder filling phase which occurs in many diseases.


It can occur at any age in both the sexes. However, it is more common in women than in men. Incontinence occurs when the pressure inside the bladder exceeds the pressure in the urethra.

This condition may be due to over activity of urinary muscles called detrusor, in some cases, it is motivated by a neurological problem, for an alteration of the external sphincter and pelvic floor muscles, by the failure of internal sphincter injury due to inappropriate relaxation or by neuronal damage.

Types of Urinary Incontinence

Stress incontinence: urine loss occurs during any movement or activity. Activities like laughing, sneezing, playing sports, lifting heavy objects or merely standing up or bending can cause urine leakage ranging from a few drops to a trickle. It affects more than one million women.

Urge incontinence:  it consists of the involuntary loss of urine associated with a strong, sudden need to urinate. The origin of this incontinence is in the detrusor muscles.

Sensitive: it is caused by increased sensory impulses from receptors voltage / pressure found in the walls of the bladder.

Overflow incontinence: urine loss occurs because the bladder is distended by obstruction and fails to empty itself.


Dietary hygienic measures: patients must control fluids intake to avoid excessive formation of urine. Most food items that are known to produce urine life milk, fruits etc. should be taken in lesser quantity.

Drug therapy: objective of drug treatment is to ensure that the bladder is able to relax without contracting during filling and that the urethra remains closed during filling. The most commonly used drugs are anticholinergic substances that decrease detrusor contractility and increase the tolerance of bladder.

Surgery: There are different surgical solutions according to the type of incontinence and the characteristics of the bladder and urethra.

Bladder training: patients regain bladder control by learning to resist the urge to urinate and thus contributing to increase bladder capacity. This is achieved through exercises that develop the pelvic floor muscles.

Prostatitis is a non cancerous or benign disease of the prostate gland. It involves the inflammation of the prostate which is a gland which is found beneath the urinary bladder and encircles the urethra. It is located before the rectum, and a portion of this gland can be identified, during rectal examinations. This gland plays an important part in the reproductive systems of males.

Almost seventy per cent of the fluids which constitute semen consist of the secretions of this gland. Due to its location, a problem with the prostate gland generally results in urinary problems. The term Prostatitis covers a whole plethora of diseases associated with this gland.

There are four main types of Prostatitis:

  • Acute bacterial
  • Chronic bacterial
  • Chronic Prostatitis which does not involve any infection
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory type of Prostatitis


Some of those bacteria which cause infections of the bladder are responsible for Acute bacterial type of Prostatitis. It can also be sexually transmitted and the infection could spread through a person’s blood stream to his prostate gland.

The symptoms are chills, fever and trembling. There is also increased frequency and urgency in urination. Chronic bacterial type is a very rare form of Prostatitis and results from an existing bacterial infection already present in this gland. There are no symptoms other than bladder infection. Chronic Prostatitis is also known as chronic pelvic-pain syndrome.

Rectal, testicle or pelvic pain is recurrent but there is no infection. Ejaculation and urination may be painful and there could be erectile dysfunction. The causes have not been identified yet. Asymptomatic inflammatory type is as the name suggests. There are no symptoms at all and the causes have still not been identified.


This largely depends on the doctor, who has to carefully go through the patient’s medical history and do all kinds of tests. Urinalysis is conducted to determine the exact kind of Prostatitis. X-ray, computerized tomography and ultrasound testing might also be required.


The major part of treatment is based on antibiotics which are administered though the patient’s mouth. Doctors also prescribe pain killers, plenty of fluids and sufficient rest. For acute cases or a weak immune system, intravenous antibiotics along with specialized care will be required. Some of the antibiotics which are prescribed may be long term.

Doctors may also ask the patient to undergo relaxation therapy, depending upon the type of Prostatitis.

Human Herpes Virus: Herpes virus is the leading cause of human viral disease, second only to influenza and cold viruses. They are capable of causing overt disease or remaining silent for many years only to be reactivated, for example as shingles. The name herpes comes from the Latin herpes which, in turn, comes from the Greek word herpein which means to creep. This reflects the creeping or spreading nature of the skin lesions caused by many herpes virus types.

There are at least 25 viruses in the family Herpesviridae (currently divided into three sub-families). Eight or more herpes virus types are known to infect man frequently.

Herpes Virus Types That Infect Humans

  • Herpes simplex virus  Type 1 (HSV-1)
  • Herpes simplex virus  Type 2 (HSV-2)
  • Epstein Barr virus (EBV)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
  • Human herpes virus 6 (exanthum subitum or roseola infantum)
  • Human herpes virus 8 (Kaposi’s sarcoma-associate herpes virus).

Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is the virus that most commonly causes the childhood disease roseola. Two genetically distinct variants have been discovered: human herpes virus 6A (HHV-6A) and human herpes virus 6B (HHV-6B). HHV-6B has been associated with a variety of viral illnesses, including exanthem subitum (roseola infantum), mononucleosis syndromes, focal encephalitis, and pneumonitis.

This virus shows the closest homology with cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7).  HHV-6 infection in infants is the most common cause of fever-induced seizures. Infection in adults is seen primarily in immunocompromised hosts who have undergone solid organ transplants or in those with HIV infection. Reactivation of latent HIV infection attributable to HHV-6 infection has been reported. No prophylaxis or treatment for infection with HHV-6 presently exists. The great majority of HHV-6 infections is silent or appears as a general mild febrile illness.

A patient has become infected by herpes virus, the infection remains for life. The initial infection may be followed by latency with subsequent reactivation. Herpes viruses infect most of the human population and persons living past middle age usually have antibodies to most of the above herpes viruses with the exception of HHV-8.

Herpes virus replication:

i) Binding to the cell surface: As with many other viruses, cell tropism is determined by the availability of the correct receptor on the surface of the cell to be infected. The virus fuses with the cell membrane at ambient pH and so there is the possibility of syncytia formation between infected cells and therefore cell to cell transmission even in the presence of neutralizing humoral antibodies. This means that cell-mediated immunity is important in suppressing herpes virus infections.

ii) Nucleocapsid enters cytoplasm: The tegument-surrounded nucleocapsid is carried to the nuclear membrane where the nucleocapsid binds. The DNA genome then enters the nucleus.

iii) Transcription: This is a very complex process, as might be expected from the large size of genome. There are three classes of proteins that need to be made for the production of a mature virus.

Arthritis diseases causes swelling up of joints, pain, stiffness and even destruction and erosion of bones, tissues and muscles. Most often in rheumatoid arthritis the autoimmune diseases affect the connecting tissues and medical attention is needed. While the patient undergoes that following an exercise regularly can also help in reduction of the problems and joint pains, increasing the flexibility of the muscles, tendon, and the joints.


Types of Exercises

In arthritis generally three types of exercises can help, they are flexibility exercises (stretching, range-of-motion), resistance or strengthening exercise, and cardiovascular or endurance exercise (aerobic).

Flexibility Exercise (Stretching, Range-of-motion) – One should start the exercise regime with gentle stretching exercises as it will help in not only increasing the flexibility of the joints but prepare oneself for the further strenuous exercises. These stretching exercises are like warm-up exercises and release the tension from the body and doing them in the morning eases the stiffness of the joints. Flexibility or stretching exercises are generally done for 15 minutes at a stretch and can be done at land or water (pools, bath-tubs and even warm baths).

Motion-exercises can be Tai chi, which helps in reducing pains mainly those with acute knee osteoarthritis and improving in the balance while reducing stress. Yoga on the other hand relaxes the muscles reduces the stiffness caused due arthritis, at times even weight loss exercises helps with the patients suffering from overweight problems.

Resistance or Strengthening Exercises – Strong muscles are needed when one is suffering from arthritis as it helps in lessening the pressure on the joints as well as works as better shock absorbers and protects the joints from getting injured. Strengthening exercises can be of two types: Isometric and Isotonic.

Isometric exercise helps in tightening the muscles where the joints need not be moved. It is beneficial in reducing the joint stress.

Isotonic exercise involves moving the joints and mainly focuses on strengthening the joints where inflamed joints are mainly worked on and making the movements easier. As the exercises progress, with time weights can be added to increase the strength.

Cardiovascular or Endurance Exercises (Aerobic) – This exercise involves working of the muscles of the body in a continuous and rhythmic motion. It can range from swimming, cycling, walking, dancing and other forms of exercises. These workouts are for entire body and improve the endurance and strength of the bones of the entire body also helps in reducing stress, anxiety and controls the weight problems too.  Generally endurance or cardiovascular exercises are done three to four times each week as part of the fitness program having 30 minute sessions in each workout.

Some Notes on Arthritis Exercises

Since there are many conditions and types of arthritis, there are multiple ways in which exercise and specific regime to follow. There are cases where exercises for arthritic patients are off-limit too, so a doctor or a therapist should be consulted before starting an exercise regime. A professional will be able to suggest the types of exercises that will be effective for a particular joint or arthritic problem.

The physical, chemical and microscopic examination of the urine is called urinalysis. Number of various tests can be performed to measure and detect the various compounds and abnormalities in the urine, which can signify other diseases or ailments in the body.


Types of Urinalysis

There are many tests that can be performed; here are some of the common tests run on the urine to find out the problems.

  • Colour – The colour of the urine is the basis of this test, where the water content is of the prime concern along with the effects that some medicines that can cause.
  • Clarity – Generally normal urine is clear but the presence of mucus, blood, bacteria, crystals, sperm can make it cloudy.
  • Odor – Urine has a light smell, but some diseases or infection can cause it to have strong odour.
  • Specific Gravity – Kidney passes water with other substances in urine, this test analysis the water content in the urine and the other materials that kidney passes in the urine. The higher the specific gravity, it means the water content is low.
  • pH – pH test is used for measuring the nature of the urine, whether acidic or alkaline. A 7 in pH test means its neutral and a 4 is strongly acidic in nature whereas 9 is very much alkaline. A doctor can advise on how to maintain a balance to prevent kidney stone formation.
  • Protein – Kidney diseases, pregnancy, auto-immune conditions and other aliments can cause protein to be present in urine which is normally not there.
  • Glucose – Kidney ailments, damages or even diabetic patients are likely to have the presence of glucose in urine, which is normally not present in urine and can be found in blood.
  • Nitrites – Urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused due to bacteria and that transforms the urinary nitrates to nitrites.
  • Leukocyte esterase (WBC esterase) – This test shows the presence of leukocyte (white blood cells) in the urine and it generally means the presence of UTI.
  • Ketones – Ketone is the substance that is formed when the body breaks down the energy and it is then passed in the urine, but the presence of large amount of ketones means the person is suffering from some serious ailments of conditions.
  • Microscopic analysis – In this test the urine is taken in a test tube and put in the certrifuge (a special machine) where the tube is spun so that the solid materials would settle down at the bottom. The solid materials are then taken and put on a slide for further testing.

Here is a list of different tests performed under microscopic analysis.

1. Red or white blood cells,


3. Crystals,

4. Bacteria, parasites, yeast cells, and

5. Squamous cells.

Why Urinalysis

Many diseases or ailments can be detected from urinalysis. Generally these are the primary reasons for which it is done.

  • Regular medical evaluation – A yearly or a regular check up for an assessment of the health or before surgery is done where the condition of the kidney and other diseases are checked with the urinalysis.
  • For Particular symptoms – A doctor can ask an individual to undergo urinalysis so that a particular condition or problem can be detected from the symptoms.
  • Diagnosing a medical ailment – Some chronic medical ailments or conditions can be detected from this test.
  • Monitoring the progression of a therapy – At times a doctor advises urinalysis within a short  or a particular time span to check the progression or the responses the patient has to the therapy to the ailments.

How to prepare

This test need the attention and the awareness in the technical aspect of the patient as the urine sample is to be collected by the individual. So listen to the advice the lab authorities give regarding collection of the sample.

Complement Protein Test is also known as the C-Reactive Protein (CPR) Test that measures a special type of protein concentration in the blood serum. This protein is produced by the liver and is present when there is acute infection or inflammation in the body. The CPR is important in the immunologic defense mechanism by interacting with the complement system.


Types of Complement Protein Test Works           

There are two categories under which the Complement Protein Test or CPR is used to determine the abnormality or deficiency in the complement system that is the cause of the disease in the patient. They are Complement Component 3 (C3) and Complement Component 4 (C4).

Ailments Diagnosed

Complement Protein Test are used by the doctors to diagnose inflammation, angioedema or chronic microbial infections. Apart from these it is also used for testing and monitoring immune complex-related ailments such as rheumatoid arthritis, serum sickness, glomerulonephritis (a kidney disorder) and visculitis. Autoimmune diseases that are chronic or acute like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can also be diagnosed with CPR Test. In the case of the diseases the complement levels drop or get cleared from the blood as the immune complexes form.

When is Complement Protein Test Ordered

A person suffering from unexplained inflammation or having the symptoms of autoimmune disorder can be asked to take the test. Also a doctor can ask to get the test done if he suspects a patient suffering from some kind of immune complex-related disease and needs to check the complement system of the person. Generally C3 and C4 tests are ordered together as it is important to find out the relative levels. The Complement Protein Testing gives the doctor an idea about the severity of the disease by the decrease of the complement levels.

Deducting the Complement Protein Result

There can be increase or decrease in the complement protein level, if there is a decrease in the level due to hereditary cause, the individual is them prone to recurrent microbial infection. Decrease in the Complement Protein can also be linked with development of autoimmune diseases.  The increase in the complement protein generally can be seen during chronic or acute inflammation. In both the cases complement protein can return to normal when the cause of the abnormality is treated.

­Arthritis and Complement Protein Test

The test is used mainly for rheumatic arthritis, where there is inflammation and eventual degeneration too. Doctor uses this test to monitor the flare-up of the disease as well as to evaluate the success of a particular treatment on the arthritic patient.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also known as NSAIDs. These are medications for reducing inflammation and relieving pain. They are very commonly used medicines in adults. One can find a variety of NSAIDs. At least 20 of them are found in the United States. NSAIDs are available very widely and hence it is very important to be well aware of their dose, potential side effects and proper use.

The right kind of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug must be chosen. As there is a wide range of NSAIDs available in the market, a person may find it difficult to choose the best one. In addition, it is very difficult to predict the response of a person to a particular NSAID. Even if the same drug is taken by two people, the effects of it may vary to a great extent. A drug must be tried for a few weeks.

For choosing the NSAID, one must consult a healthcare provider as he is the best person to suggest. A person can be assisted by him in his decision making process.

Working of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

These drugs work by reducing inflammation pain. Enzymes known as cyclooxygenases are inhibited. These help in producing prostaglandins. However this inhibition of cyclooxygenases also contributes to a great extent to the side effects of NSAIDs.

Types of NSAIDs

There are two major types of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These include the selective and non selective ones.

  • Selective NSAIDs – the inhibition of COX enzymes are fount at sides of inflammation. It is more than that which is found in the blood platelets, stomach and blood vessels. They are very effective in relieving pain and reducing inflammation. There are less chances of causing gastrointestinal injury.
  • Nonselective NSAIDs – the inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 is done by the nonselective NSAIDs. They can be taken without prescription as well. The common drugs include ibuprofen, aspirin etc.

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is also known as juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It may start with a spiking fever, an explainable rash or a swollen knuckle.  Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is very prevalent and very common. About 50,000 children are affected by it in the United States.

The exact cause of juvenile arthritis is not yet known. It is indicated by research that it is an auto immune disease. The ability of telling the difference between harmful invaders and healthy cells is lost by the white blood cells.  The body is protected by the immune system against harmful invaders. However, in this condition, such chemicals are released by it which damages the healthy tissues. A lot of pain and inflammation is caused.

For minimizing the effects of arthritis and effectively managing it, an accurate and early diagnosis is very important. The characteristics and symptoms of each should be very well understood. This can help the child in maintaining a productive and an active lifestyle.

The appearance of this condition is found in the kids between the age of 6 months to 16 years. The first signs are swelling and joint pain. If more number of joints are affected, the disease is more severe.

There are three main types of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis:

Oligoarticular juvenile arthritis

In this only fewer joints are affected. The symptoms include stiffness, swelling in joints and pain. The most commonly affected are the wrist and knee joints. There can also be an occurance of inflammation of iris.

Polyarticular arthritis

Girls are more affected than boys in this type of arthritis. Symptoms include pain and swelling in 5 or more joints. The weight-bearing as well as small joints of hands are affected. These include the joints of the hips, knees, ankles, neck and feet.

Systematic juvenile arthritis

The whole body is affected by it. The most common symptom is high fever in the evenings. The children feel very ill. Sometimes, a rash may also be developed.

A lateral curvature of a spine is generally termed as scoliosis. Most of the people are not familiar with this disorder and hence hardly know any details about it. Scoliosis basically consists of many types and each type requires different type of approach treatment and diagnosis. Those suffering from scoliosis must take immediate treatment from a good doctor who has complete knowledge about the disorder. An osteopath is the right person who can guide patients having this disorder.

There are many types of scoliosis namely

Idiopathic scoliosis

It is the most problematic scoliosis because the cause of it is not known to anyone. It is very dangerous and has the power to affect the intestines, heart and lungs. This can start from early childhood and hence proves to be very dangerous.

Compensatory scoliosis

It is a condition where the spine is not affected however if the disorder affects other parts of the body it relatively have an effect on the spine. This state cause tilted pelvis and deformity in hips. The compensatory scoliosis is indeed very difficult to cure due to which it can take many years.

Secondary scoliosis

This type is secondary to conditions like cerebral palsy and poliomyelitis. This type is not very dangerous and can be easily cured with the help of proper medication and diagnosis. It normally disappears after a certain period of time.

For treating scoliosis there are excellent osteopaths who are very skilled in this field as they can understand the nature of the disorder. After the osteopath clearly examines the patients he prescribes certain routine which depends upon the nature and ability of the patient. He mostly suggests good exercises so that patient gains good relief from the pain and burden of scoliosis. Hence to love a healthy life make sure you take proper treatment which has been suggested by the osteopath.