Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory disorder due to which stiffness and muscle pain are caused specially in the shoulders, neck, thighs, hips and upper arms. The symptoms of this disease can be seen very quickly over some days.

People who have developed polymyalgia rheumatica are usually older than 65 years of age. People of younger age develop this condition very rarely. The symptoms of this condition are improved by anti-inflammatory drugs known as corticosteroids. However, careful monitoring is required for avoiding side effects.

This condition may have a co-existence or a relation with other inflammatory disorders as well. The other disorder is called giant cell arthritis. Visual impairment, headaches and jaw pain might by caused by this. The symptoms and signs of this include:

  • Pain or aches in the shoulders
  • Pain or aches in the lower back, thighs, hips, buttocks, neck etc
  • Tenderness in upper arms
  • Stiffness in some affected areas due to long car rides or prolonged inactivity
  • Stiffness or pain in knees or wrists

Some more general symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Low grade fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Depression
  • Unintended weight loss

The doctor must be consulted if one is experiencing stiffness, pains or aches that:

  • Are new
  • Due to which sleep is disrupted
  • The ability of activities is limited

No one has been able to understand the cause of polymyalgia rheumatica. The stiffness and pain are a result of the activity of proteins and cells that are inflammatory. They are a part of the disease fighting immune system of the body.  This inflammation is mainly in response to a disease or injury. However, collectively these disorders are known as rheumatic diseases. The occurrence of inflammatory activity is found when there is no need for response.

Everyone is aware that arthritis a dangerous disease which affects the joint and bones in a person’s human body. A person suffering for arthritis indeed faces a lot of problems. He has to undergo severe joint pain and is forbidden from doing his routine activities. Arthritis is a disease which does not have any permanent recovery but to overcome the pain there are many medications available. The treatment for arthritis could either be either home remedy or medication under an expert doctor. If you want to protect your body from joints then you must take necessary precautions for that. Moreover you must know about the signs and symptoms of arthritis so that you can take the necessary precautions.

This article will basically talk about the signs and symptoms of arthritis disease. Some of the early symptoms of arthritis are

  • Pain and stiffness in the area of joints
  • You could probably feel the skin near your joints changing colour as they become red.
  • You could feel the pain in joints while you are walking or doing any other activity

Well when we talk about arthritis there are different types of arthritis which can attack a person severely so it is important for a person to know about the types of symptoms for different arthritis problems. The types of arthritis basically consist of 4 types namely

  • Rheumatoid
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gout arthritis
  • Septic arthritis

The symptoms for all these types of arthritis are quite similar but then a person should have knowledge about all the symptoms as then accordingly he can take precautions to avoid arthritis. The common symptoms faced for all the above mentioned types of arthritis are as follows

  • Extreme fatigue
  • Pain in all the joints especially hands and legs
  • Inflammation of tissues and other
  • Warmth swelling and redness in the joint areas
  • Numbness of muscles

These are the many symptoms seen in different forms of arthritis. Thus, those people who face all these symptoms are very much prone to the disease and they have to soon undergo some treatment. As stated earlier arthritis is a disease which does not have complete cure but if a person starts taking medication when he is just facing the symptoms of arthritis there are chances that he may overcome the disease. Hence, take the necessary precautions at the correct time to lead an arthritis free life.

Iron deficiency is medically known as Sideroperia or Hypoferrenia. Iron is present in all cells in the human body and performs vital functions. For example it acts as a carrier of oxygen. Along with this it is also a medium for transporting electrons and is an integral part of enzyme reactions in various tissues.

So, deficiency of iron can hamper these important functions and can even lead to premature death. During a day iron present in the body gets consumed and when the loss of iron is not properly compensated by adequate intake of iron from the diet, a state of iron deficiency develops and when this condition is not checked, it leads to a condition that is known as iron deficiency anemia.

Some of the common causes of iron deficiency are

  • Chronic bleeding
  • Lack of nutrition
  • Inadequate intake of dietary iron
  • Malabsorption syndrome
  • Excessive blood donation

Some common signs and symptoms of iron deficiency are:

  • Fatigue
  • Paleness
  • Hair loss
  • Weakness
  • Low immunity

Iron deficiency can have serious health consequences and it should not be ignored. In iron deficiency anemia what happens is that a very important component of blood hemoglobin cannot be formed as it contains iron. To prevent this condition one should have a proper intake of dietary iron and food.

A common disorder of the red blood cells is known as Anemia. The Greek word Anemia means “without blood.” Anemia is a condition in which an abnormally low number of red blood cells circulate in the body.

Generally speaking, it is the most common disorder of the red blood cells and has many symptoms and signs.

Fatigue, weakness, tiredness and uneasiness are very common symptoms of Anemia. A person with anemia will feel tired and weak because the body’s tissues are being starved of oxygen. Actually, fatigue is the main symptom of most types of anemia.

The severity of symptoms is partly related to the severity of anemia. Mild anemia occurs without symptoms and can only be detected during a medical examination including a blood test.

Common symptoms of anemia are:

  • Fainting
  • Breathlessness
  • Heart palpitations (rapid or irregular beating)
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Tinnitus
  • Hair loss
  • Sleep disorder
  • Lack of concentration
  • Low energy
  • Lightheadedness
  • Pale complexion
  • Low blood pressure
  • Abnormal menstruation

Some symptoms and signs depend on the reasons of the anemia as well. These can include spoon-shaped finger nails and toenails in iron-deficiency anemia, mild jaundice in hemolytic anemia, and leg ulcers in sickle cell anemia.

According to the experts, because a low red blood cell count decreases oxygen supply to each tissue in the body, anemia may cause a variety of signs and symptoms. It can also make almost any other underlying medical condition worse. If anemia is mild, it may not cause any symptoms. If anemia is chronic, the body may adapt and compensate for the change; in this case there may not be any symptoms until the anemia becomes very severe.

Symptoms of severe anemia are:

  • Chest pain
  • Angina
  • Heart attack
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Death

It is worth noting that if anemia is longstanding (chronic anemia), the body may adjust to low oxygen levels and the individual may not feel different unless the anemia becomes severe. On the other hand, if the anemia occurs rapidly (acute anemia), the patient may experience significant symptoms relatively quickly.

The victims are mostly women and old age persons. However, it is not a disease in itself but a condition that originates from below-normal levels of hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Hemoglobin is the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.

A healthy person has about 5 million red cells in every cubic millimeter of blood. Each cell contains a protein (hemoglobin) that carries oxygen through the body. The process of creating and recycling red blood cells is exceptionally complex. If the red blood cells fail to effectively transport oxygen throughout the body, anemia can result.

Have you ever observed any older adults who experience tremor or shakings in their hands, leg or face?

These individuals suffer from Parkinson’s disease that occurs due to lack of dopamine, responsible for controlling movement in body.

The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease get worsened over time and are commonly found in people above 50 years of age. There is no established cure for treating Parkinson’s disease.

Common Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

  • Tremor or shaking in body parts such as hands, legs, face, etc.
  • Stiff arms and legs
  • Slow movement
  • Inability to balance and coordinate
  • Adverse affect on thinking and emotions

How Depression and Parkinson’s disease are related?

Depression increases the severity of symptoms of parkinson’s disease in affected patients and vice versa. Thus, Depression and Parkinson’s disease can worsen the symptoms of each other.

As per researchers, people who have depression along with Parkinson’s disease have more severe symptoms like movement problems and high anxiety levels than patients who have either depression or parkinson’s disease alone.

Patients who have both depression and parkinson’s disease experience great difficulty in concentrating although they may have show less sign of worthlessness or sadness than patients who are depressed but do not have parkinson’s disease.

Patients who have Parkinson’s disease have high number of reuptake pumps for Serotonin. These overactive pumps decrease the serotonin levels leading to depression.

Signs and Symptoms of Depression in patients who have Parkinson’s disease

  • Feeling of sadness
  • Mood Disorders
  • Slow movement
  • Inability to balance and coordinate
  • Adverse affect on thinking and emotions
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Difficulty in making decisions
  • Feeling of worthlessness, hopelessness
  • Feeling irritable or restlessness
  • Loss of interest in activities that were once pleasurable
  • Feeling tired frequently
  • Loss of memory
  • Loss of appetite
  • Suicidal tendency

Treatment of Depression in patients who have Parkinson’s disease

Although there are no medications available to check the progress of Parkinson’s disease, there are various medications that provide considerable relief from its symptoms.

Psychiatrists treat the depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease by employing combination of various therapies for obtaining the desired results.

The dosage of these medications may be adjusted depending on the patient’s response for reducing the side effects and achieving the optimal results.

  • Medications like antidepressants

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs)

Tricyclic antidepressants

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

Atypical antidepressants

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy
  • Physical exercise
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is recommended in treatment resistant depression however it may be effective in treating symptoms of parkinson’s disease
  • Vagus nerve stimulation
  • Tran cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
  • Alternative medicine including Herbal remedies and supplements

For patients, who do not respond well with the medications, psychiatrists usually recommend deep brain stimulation Surgery.

During DBS surgery, surgeons place a battery-operated neurostimulator inside the body. This medical device produces electrical stimulation in brain areas responsible for controlling movement.

A diabetic patient has increased levels of blood glucose due to lack of sufficient insulin production.

It is a very common disease that affects large number of people in general population.

A diabetic patient has to manage diabetes everyday and it leads to stress. Eventually it may contribute to depression in individuals.

As per recently concluded studies; Diabetes is linked with depression. The diabetic patients are more prone to depression as compared to normal individuals. Also, the severity of diabetic symptoms is more pronounced in depressed patients in comparison to normal diabetic patients.

How depression is related to diabetes?

It is still not clear if diabetes leads to depression or depression increases the possibility of diabetes.

Diabetes can cause worsening of the symptoms in depressed patients. It’s very challenging to manage diabetes on a daily level. Patient has to maintain strict dietary habits and take regular insulin injections/medications.

On other hand, depression cause profound effect on physical and mental health of patients. Thus, depression may lead to worsening of diabetic symptoms and also increases the risk of diabetes.

Depressed patients tend to feel sad and may overlook the restricted diet regimen or medications.

It puts them at risk of facing severe diabetic symptoms.

Diagnostic Tests for Depression in diabetic patients

Psychiatrists may perform complete physical examination of the depressed patients who have diabetes. Patient is asked various questions associated with his/her lifestyle and symptoms to ascertain the exact reason of depression.

  • Physical Assessment
  • Thorough evaluation of symptoms
  • Standardized questionnaires

Some tests are performed for ruling out other diseases.

  • Blood tests
  • Basic electrolytes and serum calcium for ruling out metabolic disturbances
  • Full blood count including ESR for ruling out a systemic infection

Signs and Symptoms of Depression in diabetic patients

  • Feeling of worthlessness, hopelessness or sadness
  • Difficulty in concentrating or making decisions
  • Feeling irritable or restlessness
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable
  • Increasing intake of alcohol, drugs, or tobacco
  • Getting tired frequently/Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite or increased appetite
  • Suicidal tendency

Treatment of depression in people who have cancer

The treatment of depression in diabetic patients is multi-fold in approach. In addition to standard treatment (Antidepressant medications and Psychotherapy); psychiatrists uses various other alternative therapies for obtaining the desired results.

Diabetic patients who are treated for depression find it easy to manage their diabetes. With the improvement in the symptoms of depression, patients experience elevated mood levels and better blood glucose control.

There is wide range of antidepressants available in the market. Psychiatrist needs to select the antidepressant cautiously as many antidepressants cause various side effects.

Depending on the condition of the patient, doctors choose antidepressant with maximum benefits and minimum side effects.

Common Treatment Therapies

  • Medications like antidepressants and antipsychotic medication

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)

Tricyclics

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

Paroxetine

Mirtazapine

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy/ or talk therapy
  • Physical exercise
  • Support from families/friends

o wonder even the thought of having cancer can make you depressed. Cancer is a really a life threatening disease. However there is no proof that cancer can lead to depression or vice versa.

Although there is no direct link between depression and cancer, the patients diagnosed with cancer experience high level of stress or sadness. Eventually these feelings result in depression.

Effect of Depression on Cancer

Depression can affect the treatment of cancer in patients who have cancer. Patients find it difficult to take active part in treatment as they are depressed and have negative feelings.

It is essential to treat depression in cancerous patients as it can generate more positive results.

Diagnostic Tests for Depression in patients who have cancer

The diagnosis of the depression in patients who have cancer is performed by trained and well qualified psychiatrists.

Doctors usually perform complete physical examination of the depressed patients who have cancer.  Patient is asked several questions associated with medical history and symptoms.

  • Physical Assessment
  • Thorough evaluation of symptoms
  • Standardized questionnaires
  • Blood tests for TSH and thyroxin levels for excluding hypothyroidism
  • Basic electrolytes and serum calcium for ruling out metabolic disturbances
  • Full blood count including ESR for ruling out a systemic infection

Signs and Symptoms of Depression in patients who have cancer

  • Feeling of sadness
  • Mood Disorders
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Difficulty in making decisions
  • Feeling of worthlessness, hopelessness
  • Feeling irritable or restlessness
  • Loss of interest in activities that were once pleasurable
  • Feeling tired frequently
  • Loss of memory
  • Loss of appetite
  • Suicidal tendency

Treatment of depression in people who have cancer

Psychiatrists need to treat depression in cancer patients after careful evaluation. As some of the antidepressants cause various side effects so doctors need to find the drugs that produces maximum benefits with least side effects in patients.

There are various therapies used by psychiatrists for treating depression in cancer patients.

  • Medications like antidepressants and antipsychotic medication

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy/ or talk therapy that inculcates the positive attitude and behaviours in the patients
  • Physical exercise
  • Support from families/friends

Other therapies for treating depression in cancer patients

  • Psycho education where patients are made to understand their illness and ways of its treatment
  • Stress management training that involves training the patients to cope up with various stressful situations
  • Problem-solving therapy that assist in identifying the problems and learning ways for solving them.
  •  Support group where patients can express their emotions freely
  • Coping Skills for taking care of depression and cancer treatment

Common Tips for treating depression in cancer patients

  • Maintain strict regimen of taking medications
  • Maintain proper sleeping habits
  • Get engage in socialising activities
  • Take interest in pleasurable activities
  • Exercise regularly and remain physical active
  • Minimize use of alcohol and other illegal drugs
  • Eating healthy foods
  • Express feelings to close friends and family
  • Quit smoking

Have you observed the signs of depression in individuals who have had heart attack?

As per researchers, heart attacks (or other heart diseases) play significant role in causing depression in people who have had these heart diseases. Studies have shown that people who have heart disease are more vulnerable to depression compared to otherwise healthy people.

Why heart attack or other heart diseases cause depression?

The exact cause of depression in patients, who have heart diseases, is not known. However depression may further worsens the symptoms of heart disease as it can reduce the physical and mental health of patients.

Depressed patients tend to ignore their medication plan and skip the treatment for heart disease.

It puts them at higher risk of death after a heart attack.

Causes of depression in patients who have heart diseases

• Biological differences may result from chemical or physical changes in the brains of affected people and lead to depression.

• Neurotransmitters are naturally occurring brain chemicals, associated with the fluctuations in the mood of the person. The neurotransmitters are supposed to play significant part in causing depression.

• The hormones may trigger depression depending on the changes in their levels in the body. There are various factors that brought about changes in hormone levels such as menopause, thyroid problems, etc.

Diagnostic Tests for Depression in patients with heart diseases

The diagnosis of the major depression is performed by doctors after thorough medical examination of the depressed patient.  Patient is asked various questions related to medical history and symptoms.

Common Diagnostic Procedures

• Full patient medical history

• Physical Assessment

• Thorough evaluation of symptoms

• Standardized questionnaires like Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Beck Depression Inventory

• Blood tests for TSH and thyroxin levels for excluding hypothyroidism

• Basic electrolytes and serum calcium for ruling out metabolic disturbances

• Full blood count including ESR for ruling out a systemic infection

• Adverse affective reactions for medications

• Adverse affective reactions for alcohol misuse

•  Evaluation of Testosterone levels for diagnosing hypogonadism

Signs and Symptoms of Depression in patients with heart diseases

Sadness

Feeling of worthlessness, hopelessness

Feeling irritable or restlessness

Loss of interest in activities that were once pleasurable

Feeling tired frequently

Difficulty in concentrating

Difficulty in making decisions

Loss of memory

Loss of appetite

Suicidal tendency

Treatment of depression in people with heart disease

Psychiatrists treat the depression by employing the combination of various therapies to obtain the optimal results.

• Medications like antidepressants and antipsychotic medication

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) such as citalopram, sertraline, and fluoxetine

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) such as venlafaxine and duloxetine

• Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy/ or talk therapy that inculcates the positive attitude and behaviours in the patients

• Physical exercise

• Support from families/friends

Tips for treating depression in heart disease patients

• Exercise regularly and remain physical active

• Eating healthy foods

• Take interest in pleasurable activities

• Maintain proper sleeping habits

• Minimize use of alcohol and other illegal drugs

• Quit smoking

• Get engage in socialising activities

• Express feelings to close friends and family

• Maintain strict regimen of taking medications

Double Depression

As the name suggests, double depression involves episodes of two types of depression. It refers to the occurrence of episodes of Major depression along with Dysthymia.

A patient with double depression has dysthymia and he/she further experiences an episode of major depression.  The diagnosis of dysthymia is done followed by the major depression.

Signs and Symptoms of Double Depression

A double depression differs from a major depression in a way that it exhibits effect of the underlying dysthymia.

The signs and symptoms of double depression involve severely depressed mood along with following symptoms.

  • Loss of interest in things those were once pleasurable
  • Thoughts of suicide or death
  • Hopelessness
  • Low energy or agitation
  • Thoughts of worthlessness or guilt
  • Loss of appetite or overeating
  • Insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Poor concentration
  • Low self-esteem

Treatment of Double Depression

The goal of treatment therapy of double depression involves treatment of both Major Depression and Dysthymia.

  • Medications like antidepressants
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy
  • Physical exercise
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  • Vagus nerve stimulation
  • Tran cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
  • Light therapy
  • Lifestyle and home remedies
  • Alternative medicine including Herbal remedies and supplements

Endogenous Depression

Depression without any reason? Yeah, this special depression does not have any apparent reason.

Although patients show all the symptoms of depression, however there is no apparent cause for it. As it seems to originate from within, it is called as endogenous depression (coming from within).

As per the researchers, Endogenous depression may results from biochemical changes within the body.

Symptoms of Endogenous Depression

The symptoms of endogenous depression range from mild to severe in nature.

  • Lack of concentration
  • Inability to make spontaneous decisions
  • Guilt
  • Little to no sex drive
  • Disinterest in work and routine activities
  • Feel tired all day
  • Lack of motivation
  • Irritability
  • Prolonged fatigue
  • Difficulty falling asleep
  • Disturbed sleep patterns
  • Experience bodily aches

Treatment

Endogenous depression is supposed to be caused by brain changes and imbalances of serotonin or other neurotransmitters. It runs in the families.

Treatment may involve the combination of various therapies.

  • Anti-depressant medications that maintain or improve serotonin level
  • Diet, herbs, and amino acids for raising serotonin levels
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or CBT
  • Food items and natural supplements such as omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B compounds, and folic acid

Chronic Depression

A Dysthymia is also called as Chronic Depression where symptoms of depression last for long-term (two years or more). It is less severe than Major depression.

Patients affected from Dysthymia are able to function adequately however they are consistently sad or unhappy.

Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Depression

The symptoms of Chronic Depression are similar to that of Major Depression however they lack in their severity and intensity.

Common symptoms of Chronic Depression

  • Depressed mood
  • Lack of interest in activities that were once pleasurable
  • Significant weight loss or weight gain
  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Excessive movement or slowing down
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling of worthlessness or guilt
  • Difficulty in concentrating or making decisions
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Changes in appetite
  • Mental and physical sluggishness
  • Persistent aches or pains
  • Headaches, cramps
  • Digestive problems
  • Suicidal Tendency

Treatment of Chronic Depression

Although dysthymia is a serious disease, it can be treated. The early diagnosis and medical treatment effectively reduces the intensity and duration of depression symptoms.

Your psychiatrist may use various treatment therapies for treating dysthymia including Anti-Depressants medications, Psychotherapy, light therapy, ECT (Electroconvulsant therapy (ECT), etc.

Mood swings that range from very mild to extreme forms give this depression its interesting name; Bipolar Disorder.

Bipolar disorder or manic depression is basically a complex mood disorder that is characterised by alternate periods of clinical depression and maniac phase.

This complex genetic disorder differs from Major depression and Maniac phase. The mood swings may happen gradually over a period of few hours or it may occur rapidly within few minutes (rapid cycling).

Apart from dramatic mood swings, patients with bipolar disorder showcase disturbances in thinking, impairment in social functioning and distortions of perception.

Types of Bipolar Disorder

There are basically two subtypes of bipolar disorder including Bipolar I disorder and Bipolar II disorder.

Bipolar I disorder: Minimum one manic episode + with or without major depressive episodes

Bipolar II disorder: Minimum one episode of major depression + at least one hypomanic episode

Causes of Bipolar Disorder

The exact cause of Bipolar Disorder is not known. Researchers believe that genetic component has a role to play in causing Bipolar Disorder.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

The symptoms of Bipolar Disorder include the symptoms related to Major Depression and symptoms related to Mania.

Symptoms of Major depression

  • Depressed mood
  • Lack of interest in activities that were once pleasurable
  • Significant weight loss or weight gain
  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Excessive movement or slowing down
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling of worthlessness or guilt
  • Difficulty in concentrating or making decisions
  • Suicidal thoughts

Symptoms of Mania with Bipolar Disorder

  • Racing thoughts
  • Extravagant notions
  • Inapt elation
  • Improper irritability
  • Feeling of Disconnected
  • Unsuitable social behaviour
  • Increased sexual desire
  • Increased talking speed
  • Markedly increased energy
  • Poor judgment
  • Severe insomnia

Bipolar II Disorder

Bipolar Disorder II is also called as Hypomania and it is characterised by milder periods of elation.

It also exhibits episodes of mild or major depression.

As per the DSM-IV guidelines, the hypomania differs from mania in terms of “the degree of severity.”

Signs of Hypomania with Bipolar II Disorder

  • Increased energy and libido
  • Irresponsible behaviours
  • Extreme focus on projects at home
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • Exuberant and elated mood
  • Extreme focus on projects at work
  • Increased productivity
  • Increased confidence
  • Risk-taking behaviours
  • Increased creativity

Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder

A psychiatrist will perform the following diagnostic procedures for Bipolar Disorder. There is no X-ray or laboratory test involved.

  • Full patient medical history/evaluation
  • personal and family psychiatric history
  • Physical Assessment
  • Thorough evaluation of symptoms

In some cases, doctors may recommend Lab tests for ruling out other serious illnesses. The early diagnosis and effective treatment helps a lot in treating bipolar disorder.

Moreover, doctors may ask you to consult with your family members for identifying the times when your mood was too high. Mania drastically affects thinking, ability to take correct decisions and social behaviour of the patient.

Treatment of Bipolar Disorder

There are various treatment therapies available for treating Bipolar Disorder. The doctors usually employ the combination of various therapies to obtain the optimal results.

Medications

  • Antidepressants
  • Mood stabilizers such as lithium
  • Anticonvulsants, Antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines for stabilizing mood
  • Antidepressants with mood stabilizers for boosting the depressed mood
  • Stimulants for boosting the antidepressant drug action

Other Therapies

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy
  • Physical exercise
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  • Vagus nerve stimulation
  • Tran cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
  • Light therapy
  • Music therapy
  • Group therapy
  • Lifestyle and home remedies
  • Alternative medicine including Herbal remedies and supplements