To know about mono is not meant to say that we have known about its factors. Basically mono or mononucleosis is a kind of virus which spreads with EBV (Epstein-Barr virus). This is the main cause in childhood which spreads mono as a complex disease. There are some more risk factors which affects a human while he/she is having mono as diseases. A person can get many infections and these infections are called as risk factor. Basically risk factor dictates about the characteristic which is not in the favor of health.

Risk factors:

If a person whose saliva is infected with mono and any kind of disease which is touch and get, then it is serious to be in contact of him/her physically. If a person is having drowsiness and getting fever with it again, then it should not maintain the regular system of body, because he is infected by the virus.

If a person is having drowsiness and getting fever with it again, then it should not maintain the regular system of body, because he is infected by the virus. Loss of appetite and muscle aches or stiffness leads to mono. Swollen and spleen swollen is the big issue there. There is a problem with this disease that if anybody who is having virus in his salvia and kisses someone non-patient person.

A patient who is having this virus may contain chest pain with his health. Cough and normal headache is the big issue in this disease. We can think it as that reactivation of this virus doesn’t contain much power which it use dot have before.

If the counting of WBC (white blood cells) is high form RBC (red blood cells), then immune system can maintain this counter in accordance to body power which is needed by the person’s health.

This is really very serious about the healthy person. The virus of EBV remains inactive throughout the life. But it can be reactivated time to time. We can think it as that reactivation of this virus doesn’t contain much power which it use dot have before.

A symptom dictates risk factor of mono that includes the inherited features of these kinds of treatments. It says that” It creates alarm by showing high temperature and low fitness of body. This is not possible to get these symptoms at the moment when we got this disease”.

Some risk factors to be noticed:

These kinds of risk factors are well ionized with schools and colleges, groups of guys are not aware about this disease. This may leads to another risk factor.

We may have diabetes as the gift of this disease, somehow peoples are aware about diabetes and they know how to handle it well according to the access of disease.

Organ transplant may leads to other symptoms these are complex here in these diseases.

Chemotherapy and AIDS may plant to another way of these diseases; awareness of people is the only and significant way which tells us to be protected before facing the attack of any disease.

Septic arthritis is also known as infectious arthritis. The bacterial infection causes it. However it may also be caused by a viral or a fungal infection. The spread of infection can take place to the affected joints from other parts of the body. It can also be introduced to other joints during surgery or an injury.  This condition is very acute and it results very quickly in inflammation, severe joint pains, redness and swelling.  In some cases chills and fever are also caused. At such times, the condition becomes very chronic.

Any joint can be affected by septic arthritis. However, very commonly it can be found in the hip, shoulder, knee, finger joints, elbow and wrist.  Mostly, it affects only one joint. However, sometimes more than one joint can also be affected. The diagnosis and treatment of this condition has to be done very properly and quickly. Otherwise, other joints can be destroyed in a short period of time.

Septic arthritis is very commonly found in people who have experienced a recent traumatic injury to joints.  It also occurs in people who have undergone joint replacement or have had a joint surgery.  People who have developed an infection in the blood are also likely to develop septic arthritis.  The spread of microorganisms can be seen from the original site of infection in blood to the joint space.

Additional risk factors for septic arthritis include diabetes, age, weakened immune system etc.  Other conditions also include rheumatoid arthritis and gout.  Acute forms of septic arthritis also include streptococcus, staphylococcus etc.

Sometimes HIV, Lyme disease, mumps, rubella or Hepatitis B can also be caused by the microorganisms. These move in for infecting the joint. Chronic septic arthritis is very rare and is caused by microorganisms.  Proper care must be taken for septic arthritis.

We see so many people in our day to day life who are suffering from the dangerous disease called as arthritis. When we ask these people about it the expression which they give is indeed breathe taking. It is because such is the pain felt by these arthritis patients. The condition of these people is really worst. They have severe pain in their joints as it becomes swollen and red. The risk factors of arthritis are that they are very painful and stop a person from doing his daily activities. Lastly when you ask the patients about how long will it take to cure, the ultimate answer which you would get would be its not curable.

There are many risk factors involved in arthritis. All the doctors are quite aware of the risk factors and accordingly guide patients. People always to remain healthy and they always follow their doctor’s advice. So doctors must suggest good precautions so that patients take it seriously. This will also help patients to overcome pain. The risk factors of arthritis mainly are of four types

  • Gender

Gender can be one of the risk factors of arthritis. It is seen that women are more prone to arthritis than men. This does not mean that men are totally safe from this disease it is just that the cases of women having arthritis are more but both can be affected.

  • Age

This can be another risk factor of arthritis. Earlier only old people were prone to this disease but today people of all age group suffer from arthritis. This disease majorly affects people over the age of 40. This is because their bones start getting weak and also because they do a lot of work their joints become less and this slow pain ends with arthritis.

  • Ethnicity

Ethnicity can be a minor risk factor but then too showcases as one of the risk factors of arthritis. Professionals and researchers have seen relationship between ethnicity and arthritis and thus have proved it to be one of the risk factors.

  • Genetics

The last risk factor would be genetic. Some genes have the risk for increasing arthritis. Although this factor needs deep research work it is indeed a risk factor.

These risks cannot be modified and other factors like joint pain can also cause arthritis. There are some risk factors for arthritis which can be modified if you take timely precautions. Obesity can be one of the risk factors which can be modified with the help of time. So do take necessary precautions to avoid arthritis risks.

Have you ever experienced symptoms of depression after receiving a mild or severe brain injury?

In fact, patients who have had traumatic brain injury are likely to feel sadness or depressed mood.

As per the researchers, any injury to brain (Mild. Moderate or severe) can lead to various physical or mental problems.

Common problems after brain injury

  • Headaches
  • Mood changes
  • Depressed mood or Anxiety
  • Difficulty to memorise or remember
  • Ringing sensation in your ears
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Fatigue or loss of energy

In some cases, patients may experience symptoms of anxiety or depressed mood even after

many months or years following brain injury.

Risk factors of depression after brain Injury

  • Any sort of brain injury can lead to depression including mild, moderate, or severe injury.
  • Person of any age can experience depression after brain injury
  • Individuals with any gender can experience depression after brain injury
  • Depression may result irrespective of the part of brain that was injured

Diagnostic Tests for Depression after brain Injury

The diagnosis of the major depression is performed by doctors after thorough medical examination of the depressed patient. Patient is asked various questions related to medical history and symptoms.

  • Full patient medical history
  • Physical Assessment
  • Thorough evaluation of symptoms
  • Standardized questionnaires
  • Blood tests for TSH and thyroxin levels for excluding hypothyroidism
  • Basic electrolytes and serum calcium for ruling out metabolic disturbances
  • Full blood count including ESR for ruling out a systemic infection

Symptoms of depression in patients who have had brain injury

Patients who have had brain injury may experience various symptoms of depression. As a patient you may not observe some of these symptoms; however your friends/family members may notice them.

You should consult with your relatives, friends or people close to you if they have observed any changes in your mood or behaviours.

  • Feeling of sadness
  • Lack of energy or fatigue
  • Lack of interest in enjoying tasks that were once pleasurable
  • Difficulty in sleeping (too much sleep or too less sleep)
  • Loss of appetite
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Suicidal tendency
  • Feelings of guilt or worthlessness
  • Avoid spending time with family members or friends
  • Increasing intake of alcohol, drugs, or tobacco
  • Tendency to eat more or loss of appetite

Treatment of depression in patients who have had brain injury

Psychiatrists treat the depression by using combination of various therapies as it helps in obtaining the desired results.

  • There are many antidepressants used by psychiatrists for treating depression. Patients have to take these medications for long periods including months or even years.

Medications like antidepressants and antipsychotic medication

  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) such as citalopram, sertraline, and fluoxetine
  •  Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) such as venlafaxine and duloxetine
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy/ or talk therapy that inculcates the positive attitude and behaviours in the patients
  • Physical exercise
  • Support from families/friends

Major depression with psychotic features

Major depression with psychotic features is a serious depression that is characterised by the hallucinations and loss of reality (psychosis).  Patient is not only depressed but also develops

delusions.

Major depression causes profound effect on the lifestyle of affected patients who find it difficult to work, eat, sleep, concentrate and enjoy social activities.

Causes of Major Depression with Psychosis

The exact cause of Major Depression with Psychosis is not known. However there are certain risk factors that make a patient more vulnerable to this disease.

Risk factors that trigger Major depression with Psychosis in individuals

•             Individuals with family history of depression or psychotic illness

•             Individuals who have had traumatic childhood experiences

•             Individuals with family history of alcoholism

•             Individuals with biological family members who have had committed suicide

•             Individuals who have faced unfortunate life events like death of loved ones, divorce,

•             Individuals who have experienced major life changes such as job change, retirement

•             Individuals who have experienced physical, sexual, or emotional abuse

•             Individuals who have had failed personal relationships

•             Postpartum depression in women who have given birth to child recently

•             Individuals with low self-esteem and feelings of being deprived

•             Individuals who are addicted to alcohol, nicotine or illicit drugs

Symptoms of Major Depression with Psychosis

Patients who have Major Depression with Psychosis are characterised by the occurrence of major depressive episode lasting for entire day for at least two weeks. They also exhibit symptoms of psychosis.

•             Delusions involving false beliefs regarding one’s identity and locations

•             Hallucinations involving seeing or hearing unrealistic things

•             Depressed mood

•             Lack of interest in activities that were once pleasurable

•             Significant weight loss or weight gain

•             Difficulty in sleeping

•             Excessive movement or slowing down

•             Fatigue

•             Feeling of worthlessness or guilt

•             Difficulty in concentrating or making decisions

•             Suicidal thoughts

Patients usually exhibit the delusions and hallucinations associated with their depressed feelings.

Diagnostic Tests for Major Depression with Psychosis

The diagnosis of the major depression is performed by doctors after thorough medical examination of the depressed patient.  Patient is asked various questions related to medical history and symptoms.

Common Diagnostic Procedures

•             Full patient medical history

•             Physical Assessment

•             Thorough evaluation of symptoms

•             Standardized questionnaires like Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Beck Depression Inventory

•             Blood tests for TSH and thyroxin levels for excluding hypothyroidism

•             Basic electrolytes and serum calcium for ruling out metabolic disturbances

•             Full blood count including ESR for ruling out a systemic infection

•             Adverse affective reactions for medications

•             Adverse affective reactions for alcohol misuse

•             Evaluation of Testosterone levels for diagnosing hypogonadism

Treatment of Major Depression with Psychosis

Patients who have major depression with psychosis require immediate medical care and treatment.

There are various treatment therapies available for treating Major Depression. The doctors usually employ the combination of various therapies to obtain the optimal results

•             Medications like antidepressants and antipsychotic medication

•             Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy

•             Physical exercise

•             Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

•             Vagus nerve stimulation

•             Tran cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

•             Lifestyle and home remedies

•             Herbal remedies and supplements

•             Mind-body connections

•             Coping and support

Melancholic Depression is basically a sub type of Clinical Depression. It is regarded as a severe form of depression that is more common in women than men.

It is characterised by lack of interest of individual in activities that were once pleasurable. Also, individuals become slower in response to the temporary positive life events.

Causes of Melancholic Depression

Melancholia Depression is supposed to be caused due to biological factors. It is believed to be genetically inherited in the offspring from their parents.

Common Risk Factors

  • Stressful situations excluding life changing events
  • Individuals who suffer from bipolar depression I
  • Individuals who suffer from bipolar depression II
  • Individuals with psychotic features
  • Elderly patients who have dementia

Symptoms of Melancholic Depression

  • Anhedonia
  • Severe weight loss,
  • Psychomotor agitation
  • Psychomotor retardation
  • Insomnia with early morning awakenings
  • Feeling of guilt or worthlessness
  • Diurnal variation with worse symptoms in the morning hours

Treatment of melancholic Depression

  • Antidepressants
  • Electroconvulsive therapy
  • Supportive psychotherapy
  • Deeper psychotherapy

Catatonic Depression

Catatonic Depression is basically a sub type of Clinical Depression. It is characterised by state of neurogenic motor immobility and behavioural abnormality expressed in form of Stupor.

Diagnostic criteria for Catatonic Depression

As per DSM-IV guidelines, a patient with catatonic depression must have at least two of the following signs.

  • Motor immobility including waxy flexibility or stupor (as evidenced by catalepsy)
  • Excessive motor activity
  • Extreme negativism (motiveless resistance to all instructions)
  • Maintenance of a rigid posture
  • Consistent posturing, stereotyped movements
  • Prominent mannerisms or grimacing
  • Echolalia

Symptoms of Catatonic Depression

  • Excessive Movement (Purposeless)
  • High resistance to suggestions
  • Loss of voluntary movement
  • Inability to react to one’s environment
  • Inappropriate voluntary movements
  • Involuntarily repeating some words meaninglessly
  • Extreme loss of motor skills or hyperactive motor activity
  • Holding rigid poses for hours
  • Stereotyped and repetitive movements
  • Waxy flexibility
  • Meaningless phrases

If not treated, patients with catatonic excitement may get exhausted. The catatonic depression may manifest itself in form of following syndromes.

  • Kahlbaum syndrome (retarded catatonia)
  • Malignant catatonia (neuroleptic malignant syndrome)
  • Excited forms (delirious mania)
  • Autism spectrum disorders

Treatment of Catatonic Depression

The treatment of Catatonic depression is done by experienced psychiatrist after careful and thorough evaluation.

Psychiatrist may recommend various anti-depressants and other therapies like ECT for treating the catatonic state.

Antidepressants used

  • Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed in higher doses during initial stages of treatment.
  • Intramuscular lorazepam (1-2 mg) produces marked improvement in half an hour
  • Zolpidem is also used in diagnosis

Other Therapies

  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is very effective treatment for catatonic depression that targets the underlying causes.
  • Antipsychotics are also used however they require extreme caution as they can lead to worsening of symptoms and cause serious adverse effects
  • NMDA antagonists such as amantadine or memantine are effective against benzodiazepine resistant catatonia
  • Topiramate is also used for treating resistant catatonia.

Atypical depression is basically a subtype of clinical depression. It exhibits less severe and fewer number of symptoms than clinical depression. This type of depression differs from major depression. The patient may also experience moments of happiness sometimes.

The symptoms of atypical depression may last for months or even stay forever. The mood of the patients is governed by the outside events like success or failure, etc.

Causes of Atypical Depression

Chemical imbalance in the brain is responsible for causing Depression in the patients. The changes in the level of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and nor-epinephrine are supposed to cause depression.

Risk factors for Atypical Depression

  • Feeling of Guilt or worthlessness
  • Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse
  • Family history of depression
  • Significant loss due to death, divorce, or separation
  • Interpersonal conflicts
  • Unfortunate life event such as losing a job, retiring, etc
  • Serious illness like cancer, heart disease, stroke, or HIV
  • Drug or alcohol abuse
  • Isolation from family, friends, or other social groups

Symptoms of Atypical Depression

The atypical depression differs from major depression in terms of its mood reactivity. Usually, patient with atypical depression will feel better if case something positive happens. However, mood of patients with major depression does not improve with any positive changes.

Apart from feeling better temporarily in event of positive life changes, a patient diagnosed with atypical depression must have any two of the following criteria.

Common Symptoms of Atypical Depression

  • Excessive sleeping (hypersomnia)
  • Excessive eating (hyperphagia)
  • feeling of heaviness in the limbs
  • Weight gain
  • Increased reactivity
  • Increased sensitivity to rejection at social and work relationships
  • Feeling of being weighed down

Treatment of Atypical Depression

Psychiatrists recommend combination of various therapies for obtaining optimal results in patients with atypical depression.

The patients of atypical depression usually do not respond to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) (older class of drugs).  Psychiatrists recommend antidepressants as the suitable treatment for atypical depression.

  • Antidepressants including monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

MAOI drugs including selegiline, isocarboxzaid, phenelzine and tranylcypromine

SSRIs including fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, citalopram

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy
  • Physical exercise
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  • Vagus nerve stimulation
  • Tran cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
  • Light therapy
  • Lifestyle and home remedies
  • Alternative medicine including Herbal remedies and supplements

Are you feeling sad or experiencing lack of interest in anything lately with symptoms lasting for entire day?

If yes, then you need to visit your doctor as you may be suffering from major depression (clinical depression). The most common sign of clinical depression is profound sense of hopelessness and sadness.

Major depression causes profound effect on the lifestyle of affected patients who find it difficult to work, eat, sleep, concentrate and enjoy social activities. While some patients may have clinical depression only once during their lifetime while others may experience it numerous times.

Symptoms of Major Depression

It is a common form of depression that has widespread occurrence among masses. It is characterised by the occurrence of major depressive episode lasting for entire day for at least two weeks.

Common symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder

  • Depressed mood
  • Lack of interest in activities that were once pleasurable
  • Significant weight loss or weight gain
  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Excessive movement or slowing down
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling of worthlessness or guilt
  • Difficulty in concentrating or making decisions
  • Suicidal thoughts

In order to classify the condition as major depression, one of symptoms should be either depressed mood or loss of interest. Moreover, the symptoms must be present every day (most part of the day) for at least two weeks.

Risk Factors of Major Depression

There are certain risk factors that trigger Major depression in individuals.

  • Individuals with family history of depression
  • Individuals who have had traumatic childhood experiences
  • Individuals with family history of alcoholism
  • Individuals with biological family members who have had committed suicide
  • Individuals who have faced unfortunate life events like death of loved ones, divorce,
  • Individuals who have few friends
  • Individuals who have had failed personal relationships
  • Postpartum depression in women who have given birth to child recently
  • Individuals with depressed mood as a child
  • Patient suffering from serious illness such as HIV/AIDS, heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease
  • Individuals with low self-esteem and feelings of being deprived
  • Individuals who have experienced major life changes such as job change, retirement
  • Individuals who have experienced physical, sexual, or emotional abuse
  • Individuals who are self-critical or pessimistic
  • Individuals who are addicted to alcohol, nicotine or illicit drugs

Diagnosis of Major Depression

The diagnosis of the major depression is performed by doctors after thorough medical examination of the depressed patient.

Common Diagnostic Procedures

  • Full patient medical history
  • Physical Assessment
  • Thorough evaluation of symptoms
  • Standardized questionnaires like Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Beck Depression Inventory

Doctors may perform certain selected investigations in order to rule out other causes.

  • Blood tests for TSH and thyroxin levels for excluding hypothyroidism
  • Basic electrolytes and serum calcium for ruling out metabolic disturbances
  • Full blood count including ESR for ruling out a systemic infection
  • Adverse affective reactions for medications
  • Adverse affective reactions for alcohol misuse
  • Evaluation of Testosterone levels for diagnosing hypogonadism
  • Subjective cognitive complaints in older depressed people

Treatment of Major Depression

There are various treatment therapies available for treating Major Depression. The doctors usually employ the combination of various therapies to obtain the optimal results.

  • Medications like antidepressants including Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), Tricyclic antidepressants, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), Atypical antidepressants and other medication strategies.
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy
  • Physical exercise
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  • Vagus nerve stimulation
  • Tran cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
  • Light therapy
  • Music therapy
  • Group therapy
  • Lifestyle and home remedies
  • Alternative medicine including Herbal remedies and supplements
  • Mind-body connections
  • Coping and support

Prevention of Major Depression

There is no exact way for preventing Major depression in individuals. However, individuals can take certain precautionary measures for effectively managing the disease.

  • Aware of the causes or triggers of the disease
  • Learn ways of controlling stress
  • Increase your resilience
  • Learn various ways of boosting low self-esteem
  • Develop circle of friends and social support
  • Treatment at the early occurrence of a problem
  • Long-term maintenance treatment for preventing relapse of depression

Risk Category of Depression

As such, the exact cause of depression is not yet known; however there are many factors that results in depression in people.

Some of the risk factors comprise of Biological factors, psychological and social factors, lifestyle choices, etc. In fact, there are various stressful life events that can trigger depression.

Risk factors for depression in Men

There are certain risk factors that make a man more vulnerable to depression.

  • Lack of social support
  • Loneliness and lack of friends
  • Inability to deal with stress effectively
  • Childhood trauma or abuse
  • Addiction to alcohol or drug abuse
  • Isolation

Risk factors for depression in Women

There are certain biological and hormonal risk factors that make a woman more vulnerable to depression.

  • Premenstrual problems
  • Pregnancy and infertility
  • Postpartum depression
  • Peri-menopause and menopause
  • Body image issues
  • Harbouring negative feelings

Common Risk factors of Depression

  • Being a woman (as per researchers, women are twice more likely to develop depression than men)
  • Individuals with family history of depression
  • Individuals who have had traumatic childhood experiences
  • Individuals with family history of alcoholism
  • Individuals with biological family members who have had committed suicide
  • Individuals who have faced unfortunate life events
  • Individuals who have few friends
  • Individuals who have had failed personal relationships
  • Postpartum depression in women who have given birth to child recently
  • Individuals with depressed mood as a child
  • Patient suffering from serious illness such as HIV/AIDS, heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease
  • Individuals with low self-esteem
  • Individuals who are self-critical or pessimistic
  • Individuals who are addicted to alcohol, nicotine or illicit drugs
  • Individuals who are poor
  • Individuals who take high blood pressure medications, sleeping pills, etc

Stressful life events that trigger depression

Apart from these risk factors there are various stressful life events that trigger depression in otherwise normal individuals.

  • Failed relationship such as breaking up with a boyfriend or girlfriend
  • Getting failed in exam
  • Illness of near ones
  • Divorce
  • Childhood abuse
  • Job loss
  • Social isolation

Causes of Depression

What is it that keeps most people depressed and sad? What makes them feeling worthlessness and gloomy?  People are often clueless about what makes them depressed. Actually, the exact cause of depression is yet to be identified.

Depression may result from variety of causes. In fact, finding out the exact cause of the depression is one of the challenges in treating depression. Once the underlying cause is identified, the treatment may begin and yield effective results quickly.

Common causes of Depression

The depression may result from either a single cause or a combination of one or more causes. Also, depression does not depend on age of patient and may even occur in kids.

Genetics and Hereditary:  The genes of depression are believed to be inherited by children from their parents. It is more prevalent in patients whose biological family members have history of depression.

Unfortunate Life events: There are certain unfortunate events that may lead to depression in otherwise normal people. These life events may include heavy financial loss, death of a loved one, high work stress, etc.

Childhood trauma: There are certain sections of people who have had traumatic childhood experience such as loss of parent or child abuse. Such changes may lead to permanent brain changes that make such people vulnerable to depression.

Biological differences: Researchers believe that depression may result from chemical or physical changes in the brains of affected people.

Neurotransmitters: These are naturally occurring brain chemicals, associated with the fluctuations in the mood of the person. The neurotransmitters are supposed to play significant part in causing depression.

Hormones: The hormones may trigger depression depending on the changes in their levels in the body. There are various factors that brought about changes in hormone levels such as menopause, thyroid problems, etc.

Risk factors of Depression

Depression is more prevalent in people with certain specified risk factors. These risk factors enhance the risk of developing depression.

  • Being a woman (as per researchers, women are twice more likely to develop depression than men)
  • Individuals with family history of depression
  • Individuals who have had traumatic childhood experiences
  • Individuals with family history of alcoholism
  • Individuals with biological family members who have had committed suicide
  • Individuals who have faced unfortunate life events
  • Individuals who have few friends
  • Individuals who have had failed personal relationships
  • Postpartum depression in women who have given birth to child recently
  • Individuals with depressed mood as a child
  • Patient suffering from serious illness such as HIV/AIDS, heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease
  • Individuals with low self-esteem
  • Individuals who are self-critical or pessimistic
  • Individuals who are addicted to alcohol, nicotine or illicit drugs
  • Individuals who are poor
  • Individuals who take high blood pressure medications, sleeping pills, etc

Apart from these risk factors there are various stressful life events that trigger depression in otherwise normal individuals.

  • Failed relationship such as breaking up with a boyfriend or girlfriend
  • Getting failed in exam
  • Illness of near ones
  • Divorce
  • Childhood abuse
  • Job loss
  • Social isolation

Causes of Depression

What is it that keeps most people depressed and sad? What makes them feeling worthlessness and gloomy?  People are often clueless about what makes them depressed. Actually, the exact cause of depression is yet to be identified.

Depression may result from variety of causes. In fact, finding out the exact cause of the depression is one of the challenges in treating depression. Once the underlying cause is identified, the treatment may begin and yield effective results quickly.

Common causes of Depression

The depression may result from either a single cause or a combination of one or more causes. Also, depression does not depend on age of patient and may even occur in kids.

Genetics and Hereditary:  The genes of depression are believed to be inherited by children from their parents. It is more prevalent in patients whose biological family members have history of depression.

Unfortunate Life events: There are certain unfortunate events that may lead to depression in otherwise normal people. These life events may include heavy financial loss, death of a loved one, high work stress, etc.

Childhood trauma: There are certain sections of people who have had traumatic childhood experience such as loss of parent or child abuse. Such changes may lead to permanent brain changes that make such people vulnerable to depression.

Biological differences: Researchers believe that depression may result from chemical or physical changes in the brains of affected people.

Neurotransmitters: These are naturally occurring brain chemicals, associated with the fluctuations in the mood of the person. The neurotransmitters are supposed to play significant part in causing depression.

Hormones: The hormones may trigger depression depending on the changes in their levels in the body. There are various factors that brought about changes in hormone levels such as menopause, thyroid problems, etc.

Risk factors of Depression

Depression is more prevalent in people with certain specified risk factors. These risk factors enhance the risk of developing depression.

  • Being a woman (as per researchers, women are twice more likely to develop depression than men)
  • Individuals with family history of depression
  • Individuals who have had traumatic childhood experiences
  • Individuals with family history of alcoholism
  • Individuals with biological family members who have had committed suicide
  • Individuals who have faced unfortunate life events
  • Individuals who have few friends
  • Individuals who have had failed personal relationships
  • Postpartum depression in women who have given birth to child recently
  • Individuals with depressed mood as a child
  • Patient suffering from serious illness such as HIV/AIDS, heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease
  • Individuals with low self-esteem
  • Individuals who are self-critical or pessimistic
  • Individuals who are addicted to alcohol, nicotine or illicit drugs
  • Individuals who are poor
  • Individuals who take high blood pressure medications, sleeping pills, etc

Apart from these risk factors there are various stressful life events that trigger depression in otherwise normal individuals.

  • Failed relationship such as breaking up with a boyfriend or girlfriend
  • Getting failed in exam
  • Illness of near ones
  • Divorce
  • Childhood abuse
  • Job loss
  • Social isolation