Antioxidants are obtained through our food and through supplementation and they are able to slow down or prevent the oxidative damage to our bodies. Antioxidants enhance the immune system and lower the risk of serious infections. They bind together with the harmful molecules and reduce their destructive ability allowing for cell repair and healing. Infectious mononucleosis is also known as Mono. A compromised immune system is a fair game for the Epstein-Barr virus, a member of the herpes family of viruses. The symptoms of mono include fever, swollen lymph nodes, chronic fatigue, night sweats and loss of appetite.

Generally these symptoms abate after a few weeks. There is no commonly accepted medication protocol for mono other than rest, anti-inflammatory drugs, and pain killers. However, many people have benefitted greatly by including antioxidant supplements as part of the healing process. Not everyone   experiences   the   same   symptoms. Swollen glands, tiredness, and body aches are the most common. If you are exposed to mononucleosis and do not have immunity to it, then you could be infectious for several days before symptoms appear.

Once you get mono, you can be contagious for several months. In rare cases Mono can be contagious for years. Many people with mono are frustrated that there is no real treatment. The only course of action consists of treating symptoms. Taking the natural approach is actually a very good way to treat mono.

Antioxidants vitamins, like vitamin C, Stimulates the production of the white blood cells that produce antibodies against the Epstein-Barr virus – the cause of mononucleosis. There are great for boosting your immune system into high gear. It is taking on the immune system to create the antibodies against mono. It helps to clear your cells of the virus and give your immune system the tools to perform at its peak.

Vitamin A, like vitamin C is an antioxidant that helps to kill and scavenge the virus that causes mononucleosis. There are several different vitamins that are effective in boosting the immune system. Along with Vitamin A and C,   Selenium   and   Zinc may be helpful in strengthening the immune system in order to   fight the virus. They help reduce the severity and duration of the mono symptoms, although adding additional supplements with these vitamins have not been shown to help with mono treatment.

Many mononucleosis patients benefit from taking, Magnesium as this is a mineral involved in the cell’s energy production. It helps in reducing feeling of stress, better sleep, more relaxed muscles and improved stamina. B complex vitamins help support the adrenal glands, which help the body cope with stress, as they also involved in energy production which makes them essential for people with mononucleosis. Co enzyme Q10 is a potent antioxidant and it plays an important role in energy production. It converts carbohydrates, fat and proteins into energy. A very common supplemental antioxidant that has consistently been shown to be effective is Echinacea. This helps in fighting with infection by improving our immune system.

Ampicillin belongs to a class of antibiotics called penicillin that are used for treating bacterial infections. Other members of this class include amoxicillin (Amoxil), piperacillin (Pipracil), ticarcillin (Ticar).

Ampicillin (originally branded as ‘Penbritin’) also demonstrated activity against Gram-negative organisms such as H. influenzae, coliforms and Proteus spp. Ampicillin was the first of a number of so-called broad spectrum penicillins subsequently introduced by Beecham.

The medicine is Ampicillin is used for treating infections of the middle ear, sinuses, stomach and intestines, bladder, and kidney caused by susceptible bacteria. It also is used for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea, meningitis, endocarditis and other serious infections.

It is available in the following forms and strengths, all of which are taken orally:

  • 250-mg capsule
  • 500-mg capsule
  • 50-mg/mL liquid suspension

It is also available as a clear liquid given by vein (IV).

Measures to Consume and Store Ampicillin

  • You should take ampicillin on an empty stomach, 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.
  • Shake the liquid suspension well before you take it. Use
  • A medicine cup or oral syringe to measure your dose to be sure you are taking the correct amount of medicine.
  • Store the liquid suspension in the refrigerator.
  • Store the capsules at room temperature in a dry place.
  • Discard the liquid suspension after 14 days or when the expiration date on the label tells you to do so.

Possible Side Effects

Possible side effects of this medicine are as follows:

  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Rash
  • Loss of appetite
  • Headache
  • Stomach pain
  • Allergic reaction with the following symptoms: rash, hives, itching, chills, fever, shortness of breath, muscle aches, swelling of face or neck, tightness in throat, or cough.

There are many ways to treat out bacterial infections. Some people take anti-biotic, some use medicines. Thus the direct way to get out from these kinds of diseases is penicillin’s injection. These injections are antibiotic and are used to treat a variety of bacterial infections directly by injection; this is the fastest and most efficient way of treatment.

Well this is generally recommended by some experts that if you are taking penicillin, then you should go for a doctor first. A doctor knows well how to treat you. In any other case if you don’t have any option, you must be careful about the directions which your doctor showed you.

You must clean that area which is about to injected. Antibiotic works well when the amount of dose is being kept at constant level always. You should take it after an interval or by managing the level of dose through day and night. You should continue taking the injections on use of dose until it gets over, whether if your symptoms are gone before. We should use the full prescribed amount of dose. Bacteria are there which slows down after each dose of this injection and if the amount of dose has been terminated due to unseen effects, then a person may get bacteria’s attack again on his/her body soon.

Now we look for side effects of this anti-biotic.

Its high medication may leads to mil diarrhea, your stomach may go to upset, vomiting and nausea would be normal to happen when you are initializing the use of anti-biotic from some first days. If these symptoms remain unchanged and be continues then you are recommended to tell it your doctor first and fast.

Doctor checks whatever you say to him. So this is strongly recommended by experts that if you are going for a doctor in any case, you should tell whatever you feel like about your disease. If you develop urine with blood, a high fever (viral), blooding at the level of unusualness, your eyes are yellow, tiredness and weakness is being at its high edge. A person should tell his doctor about these all specially in these kinds of disease, because this disease may leads to pseudo membranous colitis (intestinal condition).

  • If you are allergenic by penicillin then you should consult with your doctor and take care of the following precautions:
  • You must try to notify your pharmacist about your prescription.
  • You may consult about your diet. Full avoid of salt may reduce harm of this disease.
  • You should care for your babies if they are patients.
  • Don’t give breast’s milk to babies if you are patient.

The new drug target, which is known as a protease dimer, could serve as a model for developing new therapeutics for diseases ranging from cancer to Alzheimer’s.

Researchers at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) have now found a new way of targeting the herpes virus that causes Kaposi’s sarcoma, which will return researchers to the idea that protease inhibitors may be useful against the entire herpes virus family, after 2 decades during which this goal seemed out of bounds. Known as a protease dimer, the new drug target might serve as the model for developing therapies for diseases running the entire medical spectrum from cancer to Alzheimer’s say the researchers. The study was published on the Nature Chemical Biology website.

Most of the antiviral drugs in current use work by targeting the areas where viral proteins are active. These drugs use a system whereby enzymes and receptors work together to activate or render harmless a specific protein. This is called “lock and key action,” and causes the receptors to become inactive.

However, the viral enzymes known as proteases, such as exist within the herpes virus family and in HIV, take a specific form known as a “dimer,” and resemble two halves of a whole, looking somewhat like an opened clamshell, when they are stable. Dimers play a crucial role in causing viruses to be infectious but must have both halves of the clamshell in order to enable binding and activation. Back in the 1980’s, scientists blocked the active part of the dimer surface, making it possible to target the HIV protease for drug development, though the herpes virus protease dimer still eludes all efforts to stop it where it starts—at the site of activity, say the researchers.

The UCSF team had a different idea: they thought to prevent the two sides of the dimer from making a connection at the “clamshell” joint so as to prevent activation. A professor of UCSF’s School of Pharmacy explained, “If you disrupt the protein-protein interactions, you don’t need the key to a specific lock. Instead, we’re essentially preventing the lock from being made in the first place.”

Since all the herpes viruses have proteases which are similar in structure, the proteases dimmer is found to work against the entire herpes viral family.

Aciclovir (Acyclovir) is an oral antiviral drug used to treat genital herpes; does not cure the disease but relieves the symptoms. This can cause impaired functioning and may pose a safety issue, especially when driving a car, operating machinery or running heavy equipment. Acyclovir comes in several different formulations, and can be given orally or applied topically.

Aciclovir (Acyclovir) is used to decrease pain and speed the healing of sores or blisters in people who have varicella (chickenpox), herpes zoster (shingles; a rash that can occur in people who have had chickenpox in the past), and first-time or repeat outbreaks of genital herpes (a herpes virus infection that causes sores to form around the genitals and rectum from time to time).

The medicine is also sometimes used to prevent outbreaks of genital herpes in people who are infected with the virus. Aciclovir (Acyclovir) is in a class of antiviral medications called synthetic nucleoside analogues. It works by stopping the spread of the herpes virus in the body. Aciclovir will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital herpes to other people.

Aciclovir (Acyclovir) may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

  • Upset stomach
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Tiredness
  • Agitation
  • Pain, especially in the joints
  • Hair loss
  • Changes in vision

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:

  • Hives
  • Rash or blisters
  • Itching
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • Swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
  • Hoarseness
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Weakness
  • Pale skin
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Fever, sore throat, chills, cough, and other signs of infection
  • Unusual bruising or bleeding
  • Blood in the urine
  • Stomach pain or cramps
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Decreased urination
  • Headache
  • Hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist)
  • Confusion
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms or legs
  • Temporary inability to move parts of your body
  • Shaking of a part of your body that you cannot control
  • Loss of consciousness

The medicine should be taken in the right quantity as prescribed by the doctors or health care professionals. Excessive intake or higher dose may lead to severe health issues like:

  • Agitation
  • Seizures
  • Extreme tiredness
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
  • Decreased urination

Antiviral drugs are medicines that act directly on viruses to stop them from multiplying. These are the drugs used to treat infections caused by viruses. Because viruses can only function within the cells of their hosts, it has been difficult to produce drugs that act specifically against viruses without damaging their host cells.

The effectiveness of antiviral drugs is therefore limited: frequently they will contain an outbreak of viral activity but are not capable of totally eradicating the infection, which can recur (as with cold sores). Fortunately, the majority of viral infections resolves spontaneously in most people and do not require specific medication. However, in immuno-compromised individuals, whose ability to fight infection is impaired because of drug therapy or disease like AIDS, antiviral treatment may be life-saving.

Many antiviral drugs act by interfering with DNA production and thus prevent the virus from replicating. The antiviral drugs are used to prevent or treat the diseases listed above. These drugs are specific for individual viruses and offer no benefit for conditions caused by other viruses.

For patients with symptoms of severe illness that are probably due to pandemic influenza, WHO recommends that treatment with oseltamivir should start immediately, no matter when the illness started and without waiting for laboratory results to confirm infection.

For patients at higher risk for serious disease from pandemic influenza, including pregnant women, children under age 5 and those with certain underlying medical conditions, WHO recommends treatment with either oseltamivir or zanamivir as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms, and without waiting for the results of laboratory tests.

People who are not from a higher risk group but who have persistent or rapidly worsening symptoms should be treated with antiviral. These symptoms include difficulty breathing or a high fever that lasts beyond three days.

Antiviral should only be used when prescribed by a qualified health care provider, as they will be able to assess each situation and make the appropriate decisions on care.

People who are not from a higher risk group and experience mild symptoms need not take antiviral. Most people recover from the pandemic influenza without the need for medical care.

Cortisone is a hormonal steroid naturally produced by the adrenal gland and manufactured synthetically as a drug in the corticosteroid class of drugs. Cortisone and other corticosteroids act as an anti-inflammatory. Cortisone and other corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation caused by a number of conditions and they also suppress the immune system. The production of cortisone was discovered at the Mayo Clinic and first manufactured by Merck & Co. Cortisone is available by prescription in the form of tablets and topical creams and is also administered by injection.

Side effects of cortisone vary and some can be dangerous. Adverse reactions include sodium and fluid retention, potassium loss, muscle weakness, abdominal discomfort, and immune system suppression. While cortisone acetate may be prescribed in immunosuppressant doses, the complications of a suppressed immune system can occur in any patient, especially with long-term use. These complications include infection, vulnerability to infection and viruses, and difficulty with wounds healing.

Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:-

  • Allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
  • Black, tarry stools
  • Breathing problems
  • Bulging eyes
  • Changes in vision
  • Fever, sore throat, infection, sores that do not heal
  • Frequent passing of urine
  • High blood pressure
  • Increased thirst
  • Pain in hips, back, ribs, arms, shoulders, or legs
  • Swelling of feet or lower legs
  • Unusually weak or tired

Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):

  • Confusion, excitement, restlessness
  • Headache
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Skin problems, acne, thin and shiny skin
  • Stomach upset
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Weight gain

Your doctor may recommend cortisone in any form to treat a variety of conditions and complications. Remember to tell your doctor of any other medications you may currently be taking. It is also important to remember not to have any “live” virus immunizations while taking corticosteroids.

Erythromycin is in a group of drugs called macrolide antibiotics. Erythromycin fights bacteria in the body. Erythromycin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria.

Erythromycin may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Erythromycin is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, such as bronchitis; diphtheria; Legionnaires’ disease; pertussis (whooping cough); pneumonia; rheumatic fever; venereal disease (VD); and ear, intestine, lung, urinary tract, and skin infections. It is also used before some surgery or dental work to prevent infection.

Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

Erythromycin comes as a capsule, tablet, long-acting capsule, long-acting tablet, chewable tablet, liquid, and pediatric drops to take by mouth. It usually is taken every 6 hours (four times a day) or every 8 hours (three times a day) for 7-21 days. Some infections may require a longer time.

If it is in the liquid form, shake the liquid and pediatric drops well before each use to mix the medication evenly. Use the bottle dropper to measure the dose of pediatric drops. The chewable tablets should be crushed or chewed thoroughly before they are swallowed. The other capsules and tablets should be swallowed whole and taken with a full glass of water.

Erythromycin may leads to some side effects like:

  • Upset stomach
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach cramps
  • Mild skin rash
  • Stomach pain

If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:-

  • Severe skin rash
  • Itching
  • Hives
  • Wheezing
  • Pale stools
  • Yellowing of the skin or eyes
  • Dark urine
  • Unusual tiredness
  • Vaginal infection
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing

A sore throat, or acute pharyngitis, is one of the most common winter complaints. It is a symptom of infection, usually viral, or of an irritation of the pharynx – the back portion of the mouth behind the tongue.

The irritation may be a local throat infection or the result of post-nasal drip caused by discharge from allergies, sinusitis, or a head cold.

Pharyngitis can result in very large tonsils which cause trouble swallowing and breathing. Pharyngitis can be accompanied by a cough or fever, caused by a systemic infection.

Causes

Almost everyone is susceptible to pharyngitis at one time or another. Frequent episodes can be the sign of underlying disorders or chronic disease such as diabetes, malnutrition, or immune disorders.

A sore throat can have many causes including:

  • Common viruses, including the viruses that cause mononucleosis (mono) and the flu. Some viruses can also produce blisters in the mouth and throat (“aphthous stomatitis”).
  • Breathing through the mouth or smoking can produce throat dryness and soreness.
  • Sinus drainage (post nasal drip)
  • Bacterial infections. The two most common bacteria to cause a sore throat are Streptococcus (which causes strep throat) and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. Arcanobacterium causes sore throats mainly in young adults and is sometimes associated with a fine red rash.
  • Sore throat appearing after treatment with antibiotics, chemotherapy, or other immune compromising medications may be due to the yeast Candida, a condition commonly known as “thrush.”
  • A sore throat lasting for more than two weeks can be a sign of a serious illness, such as throat cancer or AIDS.

Symptoms Pharyngitis:

Viral pharyngitis may develop gradually. It is often accompanied by the flu or a cold, and body aches. If a fever is present, it will generally be in the range of 101 degrees F or below. A bacterial sore throat may be associated with swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck. Fever is typically 102 degrees F or higher. The throat may appear extremely red and have either white or yellow spots at the back.

Other symptoms that may accompany a sore throat include:

  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Hoarseness or laryngitis
  • Runny nose
  • Mild fever
  • General fatigue
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Bad breath

Treatment:

An abscess has formed in the throat and pus is collecting beyond the wall of the tonsils. Both the tongue and throat may swell. Other symptoms include a fever of 103 degrees F, with swollen, tender glands in the neck, and difficulty swallowing. A tonsillectomy may be recommended for a child who has: three or more strep throats per year more than five non-strep sore throats per year that require doctor visits enlarged tonsils that interfere with nighttime  breathing.

Medications:

  • Analgesics such as NSAIDs and acetaminophen can help reduce the pain associated with a sore throat. Steroids (such as dexamethasone) have been found to be useful for severe pharyngitis.
  • Viscous lidocaine relieves pain by numbing the mucus membranes. Antibiotics are useful if group a streptococcus is the cause of the sore throat. For viral infections, antibiotics have no effect.

Pericarditis is a condition in which the sac-like covering around the heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed. A characteristics chest pain is often present. The hearts sits in the center of the chest and is surrounded by a sac called the pericardium. This sac has two layers, one that fits tightly onto the heart muscle and another looser layer surrounding the inner layer. Inflammation of these tissue layers surrounding the heart is referred to as pericarditis.

Causes of Pericarditis

Pericarditis is usually a complication of viral infections, most commonly echovirus or coxsackie virus. Less frequently, it is caused by influenza or HIV infection. Infections with bacteria can lead to bacterial pericarditis (also called purulent pericarditis). Some fungal infections can also produce pericarditis. There are many causes of pericarditis. Most often the cause is unknown. In this case, the condition is called idiopathic pericarditis.

The causes of pericarditis are varied, including viral infections of the pericardium, idiopathic causes, uremic pericarditis, bacterial infections of the precordium (for i.e. Mycobacterium tuberculosis), post-infarct pericarditis (pericarditis due to heart attack), or Dressler’s pericarditis.

Other causes include:

  • Heart attack (see post-MI pericarditis)
  • Injury (including surgery) or trauma to the chest, esophagus, or heart
  • Medications that suppress the immune system
  • Myocarditis
  • Radiation therapy to the chest

Pericarditis most often affects men aged 20 – 50. It usually follows respiratory infections. In children, it is most commonly caused by adenovirus or coxsackie virus.

Symptoms of Pericarditis

  • Ankle, Feet, and Leg Swelling (occasionally)
  • Anxiety
  • Breathing difficulty when lying down
  • Chest pain, caused by the inflamed pericardium rubbing against the heart
  • May radiate to the neck, shoulder, back, or abdomen
  • Often increases with deep breathing and lying flat, and may increase with coughing and swallowing
  • Pleuritis type: a sharp, stabling pain
  • Usually relieved by sitting up and leaning forward
  • Dry Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Fever

Some symptoms may depend upon where the inflammation may be in the heart lining.

  • There may be pain with deep breaths and shortness of breath because of that pain, if there is inflammation in the pericardium near lung tissue.
  • Pain may occur with swallowing if the inflammation is near the esophagus.
  • Other symptoms depend upon the specific cause of the pericarditis. For example, infections may present with fever, chills and other non-specific symptoms such as muscle aches and general malaise.

Diagnosis of Pericarditis

When listening to the heart with a stethoscope, the health care provider can hear a sound called a pericardial rub. The heart sounds may be muffled or distant. There may be other signs of fluid in the pericardium (pericardial effusion).

If the disorder is severe, there may be:

  • Crackles in the lungs
  • Decreased breath sounds
  • Other signs of fluid in the space around the lungs ( pleural effusion)

The electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) shows electrical activity of the heart. In pericarditis, there are often abnormalities that sometimes can help with the diagnosis. Unfortunately, many normal variants can mimic the changes in pericarditis or the EKG may be normal.

A chest x-ray may suggest enlargement of heart tissue and can be used to rule out other problems within the chest.

Echocardiography or ultra sound the heart is often used to confirm the diagnosis. The cardiologist looks for the presence of fluid in the pericardial sac, although in many mild cases of acute pericarditis, there is no pericardial fluid seen with echocardiography.

Blood testing can be used to look for specific causes of pericarditis like infection, leukemia, kidney failure, connective tissue diseases or thyroid abnormalities.

Treatment of Pericarditis

The cause of pericarditis must be identified, if possible.

Medications include:

  • Analgesic for pain
  • Antibiotics for bacterial pericarditis
  • Antifungal medications for fungal pericarditis
  • Aspirin or a no steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen for inflammation of the pericardium
  • Corticosteroids such as prednisone (in some patients)
  • Colchicine