Over many past years, various drugs have become available to fight both the HIV infection and the associated functions and dreadful disease like cancer.HIV stands for Human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
The medication related to HIV treatment is highly active antiretroviral therapy and have slowly decreased HIV – associated complications and deaths. But there is no cure for HIV/AIDS. The therapy is initiated with individualized under the guidance of physician who is an n authorized expert in care of HIV-infected patients. A combination of minimum three medicines is recommended to suppress the virus from replication and enhance the immune system.
The different types of medicines used in treatment are
- Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) – these involve medications such as zidovudine, didanosine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, tenofovir and emtricitabine.it is an example of reverse transcriptase.
- Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase-These drugs prohibit the ability of bacteria’s and viruses to make copies of it.leoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIS) are generally used in combination with NRTIs to help keep the virus from multiplying. Examples are: nevirapine,delavirdine and efavirenz.Etravirane is a new member of drugs and has been approved by U.S. FDA in 2008.
- Protease inhibitors (PIs): these drugs interrupt replication of virus at a later step in life cycle, prevents cells from producing new viruses. These include saquinavir, ritonavir, a combination of lopinavir and ritonavir, indinavir, amprenavir and fosamprenavir, darunavir, atazavir, nelfinavir and tipranavir.Using PIs with NRTIs decreases the chances that the virus will become resistant to drugs.
- Fusion and entry inhibitors are new agents that prevents HIV from entering cells of humans.Enfuvirtide is the first drug in this group. It is given in inject able form like insulin. Another drug named as maraviroc connects to a protein on its surface of the cells of human and taken through mouth. Both drugs are used along with anti-HIV drugs dosage.
- Integrase inhibitors stop genes of HIV from becoming incorporated in to cells of human’s DNA.example-raltegravir is the first drug approved by FDA in this case.
- An antiretroviral drug prohibits viral replication and delays the development of AIDS.
- Pregnant women who a re suffering from HIV seek immediate care and consultation of doctor to discuss anti-HIV medication.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases are the most common infectious diseases caused by the micro organisms and spread through any type of sexual activity, involving the sex organs. These diseases are also termed as sexually Transmitted Infections. The infection could be caused by bacteria/parasite or virus.
Various viruses, bacteria and other micro organisms that are causes of STDs are stated below:
A) HIV: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is caused by a virus that infects white blood cells of the body. It destroys a person’s immune system. During the initial phase, even if there are no symptoms and the blood test is negative, yet the person is highly infectious.
B) Herpes Infections: The herpes viruses cause various illnesses. Chicken pox and mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr) are examples of a herpes virus.
Cold Sores and Fever Blisters: These sores are infectious for at least three to four days until the sores begin to heal. Contact with the sores or any contaminated object can cause the virus to be transmitted.
Genital Herpes: Genital herpes is what causes genital warts. All warts are caused from a virus. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted wart. It is caused from having intercourse with someone who has genital herpes, or from having oral sex with someone with a cold sore.
C) Hepatitis Infections
There are several types of hepatitis; Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. You or food workers get the infections easily if do not wash hands properly after going to the washroom and then eat, by sexual contact or sharing needles by drug users or get infected blood. There is no treatment and cure, but there is a vaccine for prevention.
Abstinence or monogamous relations (always the same partner) with someone who is free of an STD will prevent transmission. Bacterial diseases are controlled by preventing transmission and by antibiotics. Otherwise, the use of a condom and avoidance of oral/genital contact is recommended.
Other Organisms that cause Sexually Transmitted Diseases
B) Fungi and Yeast
Safe sex is very important which helps women from contacting human immunodeficiency virus also known as HIV and other lots of sexually transmitted diseases. It is been medically proven that I most of the cases HIV spreads because of unprotected vaginal or anal sex with infected person. The relationship in which one partner is HIV positive and the other partner is not is known as “serdiscordant”. There can be lots of issues among “serdiscordant” couples like how to do safe sex? And finding the correct way can be done by taking help of counsellor or through talking with each other.
How HIV spread?
HIV is transmitted through body fluids which includes blood, ejaculate, pre-ejaculate, breast milk and female genital fluids. Virus can enter in the other person’s body either through mucosa or through blood stream. HIV can also pass from mother to child while pregnancy or breast feeding.
How to do safe sex?
Safe sex can be termed as a sex when the vaginal secretion, blood and semen are not exchanged within sex partners. It is very important for partners to prevent the exchange of these body fluids when either of the partners is HIV infected. The partners should take advice from counselors in order to get best advice however safe sex includes:
- Women should prefer wear a female condom or the male should wear condom and should use a water based lubricant while having vaginal or anal sex.
- Oral sex with either woman or man has likely to have low risk of HIV transmission.
- It is advised not to share sex toys like dildos and couple should have their own collection of sex toys. Partners should consider thorough washing these sex toys with warm soapy water.
- Masturbation, massage, ejaculating, urinating on unbroken skin, cuddling, kissing and mutual masturbation are considered among safe sex activities.
- Woman should not rely on withdrawal method as pre ejaculate of an HIV positive partner can transmit HIV to the partner.
The practice of safe sex is more important even if you don’t know whether either of you has HIV as protective sex also help in preventing transmission of other STD.
The full form of STD is sexually transmitted disease or also known as STI which mean sexually transmitted infections are those infections or diseases which is transferred from one person to another person through sexual contact. There are more than 25 diseases which can be transferred through sexual contact. The most sexually transmitted diseases after HIV are syphilis, genital herpes, hepatitis B, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis and human papillomavirus.
Young adults and adolescents are those age groups which are at the greatest risk of contacting a sexually transmitted disease. Some sexually transmitted diseases have severe consequences on women if they are left untreated thus it is necessary to undergo STD test. Sexual transmission disease can be transferred from one partner to another through unprotected oral sex, oral anal sex, vaginal sex and anal sex.
Sexually transmitted diseases:
- Herpes Virus – Herpes is an STD which does not have cure at present. The symptoms of herpes virus are soars or blisters that occur in genitals periodically.
- Syphilis – There is treatment and cure of syphilis available in the market. Syphilis if left untreated can affect progress and growth of nervous system and brain which can lead to dementia or even death.
- Pubic Lice – Pubic lice is very common type of STD which is quite similar to head lice. The symptoms of pubic lice are severe itchy and the treatment for this STD is available.
- Hepatitis – There is no cure available in medical science for already infected person however there is a vaccine of Hepatitis B available in order to prevent the disease to spread. There is also a possibility of automatic wipe out of symptoms however there may be come people who can suffer from this disease for a prolong period.
- HIV/AIDS – This is one of the most feared sexually transmitted disease as many people suffering from HIV eventually progress to AIDS and then death however with new way of treatments an infected patient life can be increased.
- Trichomoniasis – This is also a common type of STD which is also curable however this disease is sometime mistaken as yeast infection leading to intake of wrong type of treatment.
HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus. It is one of a group of viruses known as retroviruses. After getting into the body, the virus kills or damages cells of the body’s immune system. AIDS stands for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is caused by HIV and occurs when the virus has destroyed so much of the body’s defenses that immune-cell counts fall to significant levels or certain life-threatening infections develop.
The virus can affect your system by following ways:
- HIV infection is spread by having sex with an infected partner. The virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, vulva, penis, rectum, or mouth during sex.
- HIV often spreads among injection-drug users who share needles or syringes that are contaminated with blood from an infected person.
- Women can transmit HIV to their babies during pregnancy or birth.
- People who already have a sexually transmitted infections, such as syphilis,genital herpes, chlamydial infection, human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to acquire HIV infection during sex with an infected partner.
- The virus does not spread through casual contact such as shaking hands, sharing bedding, kissing or via swimming pools, or toilet seats.
HIV infection has become a common complication of pregnancy in many countries with more than 600,000 children worldwide being infected annually through maternal to child transmission. Without treatment, around 15-30% of babies born to HIV positive women will become infected with HIV during pregnancy and delivery.
Early HIV symptoms also include fever, headache, tiredness, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. These symptoms usually disappear on their own within a few weeks. Later, infections like pneumonia, yeast infection of esophagus, lymphoma (a form of cancer), fever, cough, anemia and other health problems show up as the immune system of the patient weakens considerably
HIV infection is commonly diagnosed by blood tests: HIV antibody test, RNA test, Western blot test.
Several drugs are available to fight HIV infection and its related infections. These drugs are called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and have considerably reduced HIV-related problems and deaths. However, medications do not cure HIV/AIDS.