Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by a virus infection, and more rarely by intoxication. The main symptom is jaundice (yellowing of the skin). When a person suffers from hepatitis, his liver in inflated and it stops working properly. There are three types of Hepatitis, namely Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

Anyone can catch it, but there are certain groups of people who are more likely:

  • People who have received blood transfusions.
  • People who have sexual contact with a infected person, and
  • Men who have sex with men.

Symptoms of Hepatitis

Symptoms of the disease are common for all forms of hepatitis, whether it’s A, B or C.

The common symptoms are:

  • Fatigue
  • Sickness
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stomach ache
  • Diarrhea
  • Symptoms present only some people
  • Darkening of urine
  • Colored droppings
  • Yellowing of skin or eyes (jaundice)

Treatments of Hepatitis

Most people, who have hepatitis A or hepatitis B, recover on their own after a few weeks. However, it is very important to follow some guidelines:

  • Bed rest for several days or weeks depending on the overall condition of the person;
  • Follow a diet rich in protein and low in fat (to lower the blood level of transaminases);
  • Drink plenty of fluids (water or juice);
  • Do not drink alcohol until you are completely cured;
  • Take the medicines your doctor prescribes
  • Prevent consuming certain types of drugs such as painkillers and tranquilizers.

Those who do not recover on their own, like in acute cases of Hepatitis B, have to take different anti-viral drugs (mainly lamivudine), which are prescribed by their physician.

Hepatitis C has to be treated with drugs, if patients don’t recover on their own within a couple of months. Most commonly used drugs are ribavivirin (anti-viral) and peginterferon.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases are the most common infectious diseases caused by the micro organisms and spread through any type of sexual activity, involving the sex organs.  These diseases are also termed as sexually Transmitted Infections. The infection could be caused by bacteria/parasite or virus.

Various viruses, bacteria and other micro organisms that are causes of STDs are stated below:


A)  HIV: AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is caused by a virus that infects white blood cells of the body. It destroys a person’s immune system.  During the initial phase, even if there are no symptoms and the blood test is negative, yet the person is highly infectious.

B)  Herpes Infections: The herpes viruses cause various illnesses. Chicken pox and mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr) are examples of a herpes virus.

Cold Sores and Fever Blisters: These sores are infectious for at least three to four days until the sores begin to heal. Contact with the sores or any contaminated object can cause the virus to be transmitted.

Genital Herpes: Genital herpes is what causes genital warts. All warts are caused from a virus. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted wart.  It is caused from having intercourse with someone who has genital herpes, or from having oral sex with someone with a cold sore.

C)  Hepatitis Infections

There are several types of hepatitis; Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.  You or food workers get the infections easily if do not wash hands properly after going to the washroom and then eat, by sexual contact or sharing needles by drug users or get infected blood.  There is no treatment and cure, but there is a vaccine for prevention.


Abstinence or monogamous relations (always the same partner) with someone who is free of an STD will prevent transmission. Bacterial diseases are controlled by preventing transmission and by antibiotics.  Otherwise, the use of a condom and avoidance of oral/genital contact is recommended.

A) Chlamydia

B)  Gonorrhea

C)  Syphilis

Other Organisms that cause Sexually Transmitted Diseases

A) Trichomonas

B) Fungi and Yeast

C) Lice

The full form of STD is sexually transmitted disease or also known as STI which mean sexually transmitted infections are those infections or diseases which is transferred from one person to another person through sexual contact.  There are more than 25 diseases which can be transferred through sexual contact.  The most sexually transmitted diseases after HIV are syphilis, genital herpes, hepatitis B, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis and human papillomavirus.

Young adults and adolescents are those age groups which are at the greatest risk of contacting a sexually transmitted disease.  Some sexually transmitted diseases have severe consequences on women if they are left untreated thus it is necessary to undergo STD test. Sexual transmission disease can be transferred from one partner to another through unprotected oral sex, oral anal sex, vaginal sex and anal sex.

Sexually transmitted diseases:

  • Herpes Virus – Herpes is an STD which does not have cure at present.  The symptoms of herpes virus are soars or blisters that occur in genitals periodically.
  • Syphilis – There is treatment and cure of syphilis available in the market.  Syphilis if left untreated can affect progress and growth of nervous system and brain which can lead to dementia or even death.
  • Pubic Lice – Pubic lice is very common type of STD which is quite similar to head lice.  The symptoms of pubic lice are severe itchy and the treatment for this STD is available.
  • Hepatitis – There is no cure available in medical science for already infected person however there is a vaccine of Hepatitis B available in order to prevent the disease to spread. There is also a possibility of automatic wipe out of symptoms however there may be come people who can suffer from this disease for a prolong period.
  • HIV/AIDS – This is one of the most feared sexually transmitted disease as many people suffering from HIV eventually progress to AIDS and then death however with new way of treatments an infected patient life can be increased.
  • Trichomoniasis – This is also a common type of STD which is also curable however this disease is sometime mistaken as yeast infection leading to intake of wrong type of treatment.

Hepatitis B is a liver disease. Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Inflammation is the painful, red swelling that result when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can cause organs to not work properly.

The hepatitis B virus causes hepatitis B. Viruses are germs that can cause sickness. For example, the flu is caused by a virus. People can pass viruses to each other. You could get hepatitis B from:

  • Being born to a mother with hepatitis B
  • Having sex with an infected person
  • Being tattooed or pierced with unsterilized tools that were used on an infected person
  • Getting an accidental needle stick with a needle that was used on an infected person
  • Using an infected person’s razor or toothbrush
  • Sharing drug needles with an infected person
  • You could get hepatitis B from having sex with an infected person.
  • You cannot get hepatitis B from
  • Shaking hands with an infected person
  • Hugging an infected person
  • Sitting next to an infected person


Hepatitis B usually has no symptoms. Adults and children aged 5 and older sometimes have one or more of the following symptoms:

  • Yellowish eyes and skin (jaundice)
  • A longer than usual amount of time for bleeding to stop
  • Swollen stomach or ankles
  • Easy bruising
  • Tiredness
  • Upset stomach
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Diarrhea
  • Light-colored stools
  • Dark yellow urine

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests, which can also show if you have chronic hepatitis B or another type of hepatitis. Your doctor may suggest getting a liver biopsy if chronic hepatitis B is suspected. A liver biopsy is a test for liver damage.

Hepatitis B usually is not treated unless it becomes chronic. Chronic hepatitis B is treated with drugs that slow or stop the virus from damaging the liver. The length of treatment varies. Your doctor will help you decide which drug or drug combination is likely to work for you and will closely watch your symptoms to make sure treatment is working.

“Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver and also refers to a group of viral infections that affect the liver. The most common types are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. The hepatitis B virus is a small DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The hepatitis B virus causes hepatitis B in humans. Related viruses in this family cause hepatitis in ducks, ground squirrels and woodchucks. Hepatitis D is a type of viral hepatitis caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), which needs the hepatitis B virus to exist. Only people who are already infected with hepatitis B can be infected with hepatitis D.

This can be caused through:

  • Infected blood, sex, and needles
  • From an infected mother to her newborn
  • Get the hepatitis B vaccine


Hepatitis B is caused by infection with the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The incubation period from the time of exposure to onset of symptoms is 6 weeks to 6 months. HBV is found in highest concentrations in blood and in lower concentrations in other body fluids Hepatitis B is spread through contact with infected blood, through sex with an infected person, and from mother to child during childbirth, whether the delivery is vaginal or via cesarean section.

The cause of this condition is an infection with the hepatitis D virus. This virus is a RNA virus that belongs to the genus Deltavirus. Once inside the body, the virus enters liver cells, where it begins to make millions of copies of itself.


Acute hepatitis B is the period of illness that occurs during the first one to four months after acquiring the virus. Only 30% to 50% of adults develop significant symptoms during acute infection. Early symptoms are fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, jaundice. When the phase gets worse the symptoms may follow, circulation problems, dark urine, headache, drowsiness etc.


The hepatitis B vaccine offers the best protection. All infants and unvaccinated children, adolescents, and at-risk adults should be vaccinated. There is no effective treatment for either Hepatitis D.