To know about mono is not meant to say that we have known about its factors. Basically mono or mononucleosis is a kind of virus which spreads with EBV (Epstein-Barr virus). This is the main cause in childhood which spreads mono as a complex disease. There are some more risk factors which affects a human while he/she is having mono as diseases. A person can get many infections and these infections are called as risk factor. Basically risk factor dictates about the characteristic which is not in the favor of health.

Risk factors:

If a person whose saliva is infected with mono and any kind of disease which is touch and get, then it is serious to be in contact of him/her physically. If a person is having drowsiness and getting fever with it again, then it should not maintain the regular system of body, because he is infected by the virus.

If a person is having drowsiness and getting fever with it again, then it should not maintain the regular system of body, because he is infected by the virus. Loss of appetite and muscle aches or stiffness leads to mono. Swollen and spleen swollen is the big issue there. There is a problem with this disease that if anybody who is having virus in his salvia and kisses someone non-patient person.

A patient who is having this virus may contain chest pain with his health. Cough and normal headache is the big issue in this disease. We can think it as that reactivation of this virus doesn’t contain much power which it use dot have before.

If the counting of WBC (white blood cells) is high form RBC (red blood cells), then immune system can maintain this counter in accordance to body power which is needed by the person’s health.

This is really very serious about the healthy person. The virus of EBV remains inactive throughout the life. But it can be reactivated time to time. We can think it as that reactivation of this virus doesn’t contain much power which it use dot have before.

A symptom dictates risk factor of mono that includes the inherited features of these kinds of treatments. It says that” It creates alarm by showing high temperature and low fitness of body. This is not possible to get these symptoms at the moment when we got this disease”.

Some risk factors to be noticed:

These kinds of risk factors are well ionized with schools and colleges, groups of guys are not aware about this disease. This may leads to another risk factor.

We may have diabetes as the gift of this disease, somehow peoples are aware about diabetes and they know how to handle it well according to the access of disease.

Organ transplant may leads to other symptoms these are complex here in these diseases.

Chemotherapy and AIDS may plant to another way of these diseases; awareness of people is the only and significant way which tells us to be protected before facing the attack of any disease.

Edema is a disease in which swelling of the legs as well as the feet occurs in the patient. Edema arises if there is an imbalance between the forces that regulate the passage of fluid from one compartment to another. The factors driving the liquid flow are:

  • The increased pressure inside the vessel: for example, thrombosis and phlebitis of the veins, varicose veins and heart failure.
  • The decrease in the amount of proteins tends to retain osmotic water into the intravascular compartment. The decrease in protein levels is due to poor nutrition, a disruption in the formation of proteins in the liver such as cirrhosis, or loss of protein by the kidney.
  • The alteration in the permeability of the vessel wall when a person is injured by an inflammation, burns, allergies or lack of oxygen favors the passage of fluid.
  • The obstruction of the lymphatic vessels, which are responsible for collecting the remaining liquid passing into the interstitial space by infections, inflammations, etc.


  • The fluid buildup is most evident in regions of the body with abundant loose tissue such as the ankles, eyelids, and the sacral area.
  • The skin on these swollen areas may be straight or shiny.
  • If you press with your finger, it leaves a mark or dimple that slowly disappears.

The edema may have a local distribution (ankle or leg), regional (entire limb) or any other body part in general. When it is widespread and affects the entire body, is called anasarca (extreme edema). This edema is usually detectable from an accumulation of more than three liters of fluid. It affects a specific area, for example, pleural or abdominal cavity, and is called ascites or hydrothorax.


In all cases of edema formation, treatment should be directed to the disease that causes it. General measures of treatment are:

  • Bed rest with for a certain period of time.
  • Taking low-salt diet to avoid the accumulation of water.
  • Using diuretic to remove the retained liquid.
  • Using elastic stockings to help mobilize the edema and increased venous return.

Generally, Anemia is described as a condition where a person does not have appropriate number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the blood. In other words a person with low blood count is considered by physicians as anemic. According to doctors there are three types of anemia arising from the RBC count. This classification is done depending upon the size of the RBCs that are microcytic, normocytic and macrocytic anemia.

  • Microcytic Anemia: This condition is when the RBCs are less than normal. The main reasons of microcytic anemia are iron deficiency or inappropriate level of iron in the body. Sometimes a person suffers from Microcytic Anemia when he has Thalassemia, it is an inherited disorder of hemoglobin.
  • Normocytic Anemia: In this the RBCs are normal in size but are less in number. It is mostly accompanied with chronic diseases or this type of anemia connected with the kidney disease.
  • Macrocytic: Here the RBCs are bigger than normal the main cause of this is anemia is alcoholism.

Another thing that should be mentioned here is that in medical terms Anemia is a manifestation of a disease rather than a disease itself. The doctors generally determine the reason on the basis of the duration a person has been suffering from Anemia. It helps in determining the gravity or severity of the case and subsequent treatment as well.

In chronic cases, symptoms usually start gradually and moves forward slowly but in acute cases symptoms are normally sudden and even very more painful. In developed countries like the United States, 2% to 10% of total population is anemic. In developing countries like India this rate is even higher especially in young women and adolescent girls due to excessive menstrual bleeding and lack of adequate nutrition.

As anemia is a condition arising from the count of RBCs lets understand that these blood cells main function is to supply oxygen from the lungs to other organs of the body.

These RBCs are made within the bone marrow and many factors are involved in their production. For example,

  • Iron is a very important component of the hemoglobin molecule
  • Erythropoietin, a molecule secreted by the kidneys, promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.

To have exact number of RBCs and prevention of anemia requires synergy between the kidneys, the bone marrow, and nutrients within the body. If they are not functioning properly and getting proper nutrition then it would be difficult to maintain adequate red blood cell count and proper functioning may be difficult to maintain.

Anemia can cause different kind of complications like:

  • Blood loss
  • Inadequate production of RBC’s
  • Nutritional problems
  • Fatigue
  • Organ Dysfunction
  • Heart Failure

Finally let’s discuss the treatments for anemia. Some of the most important treatments of anemia are:

  • Blood transfusions
  • Blood and marrow stem cell transplants
  • Oral iron transplants
  • Iron replacement therapy