Bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydia is one of the most widespread groups of microorganisms and prevalent as a cause of various infections, particularly genital tract, respiratory and eye irritation. Chlamydia trachomatis only causes infections in humans, while Chlamydia psittaci is found in birds and can occasionally infect people causing psittacosis.

What are the effects?

Chlamydia infections during pregnancy, such as endometritis, can cause abortions, or infection of the amniotic fluid and premature rupture of bag causing premature birth. The newborn may become infected at the time of delivery, while going through the birth canal, where the mother is infected. In these cases, it can also cause conjunctivitis, nasal pharyngitis or pneumonia in the baby.

What is the treatment?

The treatment is based on the administration of antibiotics, of which there are several options. The choice of antibiotic depends on the location of the disease, the condition of the patient and body type of the patient. Tetracyclines are effective but they are often not recommended for use during pregnancy and lactation because they cross the placenta and accumulate in bone and teeth of the fetus or newborn.

In the same way quinolones (ofloxacin and difloxacin ciprofloxascina) are very effective but are used in reduced amount during pregnancy because they can cause cartilage lesions. Macrolides, erythromycin, roxithromycin and clarithromycin are effective against the bacteria and can be used during pregnancy, lactation and the neonatal period, they are not known to have any severe side effects.

In all sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), it has been observed that preventing the disease is always a better and easier option that trying to cure it. The same rule applies to Chlamydia infections as well. Women should avoid unprotected sex, sex with multiple partners simultaneously and should take care of their hygiene, in order to prevent the occurrence of this disease.

HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus. It is one of a group of viruses known as retroviruses. After getting into the body, the virus kills or damages cells of the body’s immune system. AIDS stands for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is caused by HIV and occurs when the virus has destroyed so much of the body’s defenses that immune-cell counts fall to significant levels or certain life-threatening infections develop.

The virus can affect your system by following ways:

  • HIV infection is spread by having sex with an infected partner. The virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina, vulva, penis, rectum, or mouth during sex.
  • HIV often spreads among injection-drug users who share needles or syringes that are contaminated with blood from an infected person.
  • Women can transmit HIV to their babies during pregnancy or birth.
  • People who already have a sexually transmitted infections, such as syphilis,genital herpes, chlamydial infection, human papillomavirus (HPV), gonorrhea, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to acquire HIV infection during sex with an infected partner.
  • The virus does not spread through casual contact such as shaking hands, sharing bedding, kissing or via swimming pools, or toilet seats.

HIV infection has become a common complication of pregnancy in many countries with more than 600,000 children worldwide being infected annually through maternal to child transmission. Without treatment, around 15-30% of babies born to HIV positive women will become infected with HIV during pregnancy and delivery.

Early HIV symptoms also include fever, headache, tiredness, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. These symptoms usually disappear on their own within a few weeks. Later, infections like pneumonia, yeast infection of esophagus, lymphoma (a form of cancer), fever, cough, anemia and other health problems show up as the immune system of the patient weakens considerably

HIV infection is commonly diagnosed by blood tests: HIV antibody test, RNA test, Western blot test.

Several drugs are available to fight HIV infection and its related infections. These drugs are called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and have considerably reduced HIV-related problems and deaths. However, medications do not cure HIV/AIDS.


The mono virus can affect young children and adults as well, and mostly pregnant woman are also at risk of suffering from mono. Pregnant woman are often very worried when diagnosed with mono. Mono might affect the fetus’s health. This is danger for baby.


According to the latest research from the American college of obstetrics and gynecology, mono does not causes an increased risk of miscarriage or birth defects for pregnant woman who are infected.


In the majority of causes, the symptoms are mild. Many people experience swollen lymph nodes; fever and sore throat fatigue is also a problem, which results from both the mono and the symptoms of pregnancy.

Fever- high fevers do needs to be controlled, as extremely high fever can pose some danger to the baby. Dehydration from fevers and lack of appetite must also be avoided. This particularly important in pregnancy to ensure that baby is getting all the fluids he needs.

Tips for coping with Mono during pregnancy

  • Medical help- there is no cure for mono. Serious complications from mono usually only occur in individuals who already have an underlying medical condition. You can ask your medical practitioner for advice about treatments for mono symptoms that are safe to use in pregnancy.
  • Eat well- it is hard to follow this advice when mono causes decreased appetite. You need nutrition for you and the fetus. Fruit and protein shakes can be good way to improve your nutritional intake.
  • Extra rest- resting is best way to treat mono.

This is the first line of treatment whose aim is to relieve the pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee. Normally the drugs that are used include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or ibuprofen.  Along with that physical  therapy may be used.  Apart from that injections of corticosteroid or application of a topical analgesic may also be used.  However, some people may react negatively to these NSAIDs. Only temporary relief is brought about by these agents.

The process of viscosupplementation is relatively new. A preparation of hyaluronic acid is injected in the knee joint. This acid is naturally occurring and is mainly found in the synovial fluid. It mainly acts as a lubricant. The bones are enabled to move smoothly over one another. People who are suffering from osteoarthritis have a lower concentration of hyaluronic acid. Thus, this option acts as a therapeutic solution.

Effects of viscosupplementation

The pain of many patients is relieved by this procedure. These patients fail to get relief from analgestic drugs or non medicinal measures. The technique has been in use in many parts of Asia and Europe. However, it was not approved by the FDA till 1997.  The effects include:

  • An immediate pain-relieving effect is not shown by the Hyluronic acid.
  • A local reaction may be noticed. This reaction includes warmth, pain or slight swelling. These symptoms are short lived. One can ease these symptoms by application of an ice pack.
  • Excessive weighbearing on legs must be avoided for the first 48 hours.

The long term effects of this technique include:

Due to the injections, less pain is observed in the knee.

  • There are pain relieving and anti-inflammatory properties in Hyaluronic acid.

Thus, people who fail to respond to basic treatments find viscosupplementation very helpful. This is very effective for arthritis in early stages.

Sjogren’s syndrome is a disorder of an autoimmune nature. The disease of autoimmune is basically those which come from the abnormal production of anti bodies in the blood. These antibodies are directed towards the various tissues present in the body. The Sjogren’s syndrome occurs independently most of the time and sometimes occurs in the presence of other connective tissue. The signs and symptoms of this syndrome includes enlargement of parotid glands, dry eyes, gland inflammation etc. It is not at all related to the connective tissue disease and hence is called as primary Sjogren’s syndrome.

Sjogren’s secondary syndrome involves gland inflammation and connective tissue disease like rheumatoid arthritis, systematic lupus and scleroderma. This syndrome can affect people of any age but then the symptoms of it are only noticed at the age of 40 or 45. The causes of Sjogren’s syndrome are that attacks the glands which are responsible for making saliva and tears. It also causes dryness of organs and affects kidneys, liver, pancreas etc. People who suffer from this syndrome generally experience joint pains which worsen as the day passes.

The other areas which this disorder or disease affects is the eyes and mouth. In short this disease can affect a person’s whole body and can make him weak and pale.

This disease can occur both in male and female the disease is also commonly found in families who have members with the autoimmune illness. It is seen that the patients affected with Sjogren’s syndrome have symptoms very similar to diminished lacrimal and salivary gland functions.

Treatment for this disease is generally very simple and is treated by anti-fungal and antibiotic preparations. As people suffer from dryness moisture replacement therapies will be fruitful for the patients. Products like vitamin E oil, toothpaste, gum and mouthwash would be perfect to avoid dryness in mouth. Hence it is always suggested by doctors to take all the necessary precautions so that people do not face major complications in the later stage of the Sjogren’s syndrome disease.

Now that people know about this disease it is their duty to take care of themselves to avoid any complications. After knowing the cause and symptoms of this syndrome one can surely not try neglecting it as it can have adverse effects. Hence to live a healthy life one must follow proper diet plan and maintain good hygiene so that they will remain safe from this Sjogren’s syndrome.

Of all the pains knee pain is the worst experienced by people all over. People suffering from knee pain quote it as a torture as they are devoid of doing all their regular activities. Knee pain is something very common experienced by everyone. Knee pain occur when you exert yourself too much like while you are playing, walking very fast, jogging etc. Most of the people suffer from knee pain from the age group of 40. But, this does not mean that people below the age of 40 are safe from knee pain they too can get it any time.

The main cause of knee pain could be over exertion and also because of constant of friction in bones due to dryness i.e. lack of water. Climatic changes too can be a cause for knee pain in many people. Usually it is seen that during the cold climate people experience this knee pain. Sports people too face knee pain as they constantly play their sport for hours together. Those suffering from knee pain must take immediate treatment from a good doctor as it is always better to take treatment for any disorder before it gets worst.

Treatment for knee pain is easily available. Apart from medications there are mainly home remedies too. One can do oil massage with natural oil or can fix a bandage to reduce knee pain.

Massage can always be a good option for knee pain as it can give you quick relief. One can follow a good exercise routine if he wants to overcome knee pain. A popular remedy in today’s generation could be fish pedicure. Many people have good experience of this pedicure as it really gives good relief from knee pain. Yoga could also be a good option for overcoming knee pain. Some asana in yoga specifically give you relief from knee pain if performed that on a regular basis knee pain is sure to vanish in a few days.

The effects of knee pain are very much serious. Many a times the pain is very unbearable so in such cases immediate treatment is necessary. People suffering from knee pain cannot travel easily and cannot sit down and do work. They cannot easily climb stairs as that puts a lot of pressure on knees. In short routine work takes a pause.

Knee pain can be healed very easily if routine exercise is followed. The only thing which is required is pure dedication to follow a good exercise and yoga routine. If proper care is not taken it can lead to arthritis and other severe knee problems.

It is rightly said that prevention its better than cure so it’s indeed good to take good care of yourself. Those who do not wish to suffer from knee disorder they must eat healthy food mainly they should have a balanced. A balanced which consists of all the necessary proteins calcium so that bones are strong and don’t become weak. Hence take proper care to avoid knee pain risks.

The moment you come to know that you have HIV infection; you are bound to get visuals of painful death. The trauma associated with AIDS/HIV keeps you in a state of shock, grief and sadness. Eventually it leads to Depression.

According to the results of various studies, the rates of depression in HIV infected patients are around 60% as compared to only 5% to 10% in general population. Moreover, depression associated with AIDS/HIV is more common in women than men.

To face AIDS/HIV infection requires you to be mentally strong. However in majority of cases, patients succumb to pressure and social stigma attached with AIDS and get into depression.

Although depression associated with HIV is dreadful condition, it is not easily recognised and doctors may associate the depression symptoms with signs of advancing HIV.

Effect of depression on HIV/AIDS

Depression can adversely affect the treatment in patients infected with HIV. Patients struggle to cope with the intense treatment regime and pressure associated with it.

Patients get reluctant to take active part in their treatment and tend to miss out their doses of medication. Moreover, in severe cases depression promotes high-risk behaviours that may spread HIV infection in others.

Depression may lead to fast progression of HIV disease and activated the latent viral infections.

It also interferes with your ability to enjoy life.

Causes of Depression linked with HIV

People infected with HIV are likely to get depressed due to following reasons.

  • Medications used for treating AIDS/HIV may worsen the depression symptoms
  • Low levels of testosterone
  • Low levels of Vitamin B6 or vitamin B12
  • Hiding about your disease from others
  • Failure of HIV treatmen

Symptoms of depression in HIV patients

The symptoms of depression in HIV patients vary from one person to other. Generally, patients begin to show feelings of depression from the moment they are aware of their HIV infection. If these feelings persist for longer term, patient gets depressed.

  • Tiredness or Fatigue
  • Reluctant to engage in any activity
  • Difficulty in concentrating or memorising
  • Very low sex drive
  • Sleep disturbances including too much sleep or too less sleep
  • Loss of appetite or tendency to overeat
  • Weight loss or weight gain
  • Feeling of worthlessness or hopelessness

Treatment of depression in HIV patients

Psychiatrists perform the comprehensive evaluation of depressed HIV patients before deciding about the antidepressants and other treatment therapies.

As some of the antidepressants cause various side effects so doctors need to monitor how their patients are responding to medication. The psychiatrists usually prescribe the drugs that produce maximum benefits with least side effects in patients.

Antidepressants should be used in supervision of a doctor who is taking care of HIV treatment.

  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • tricyclics
  • psychostimulants
  • dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Common side effects of antidepressants are loss of sexual desire, anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, lack of appetite, upset stomach, diarrhoea, etc.

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy/ or talk therapy
  • Physical exercise
  • Support from families/friends

Other therapies for treating depression in HIV patients

Lifestyle changes

  • Daily regular exercise
  • Good sleeping habits
  • Exposure to sunlight
  • Counselling Sessions
  • Stress management training that involves training the patients to cope up with various stressful situations
  • Problem-solving therapy that assist in identifying the problems and learning ways for solving them.
  •  Support group where patients can express their emotions freely
  • Coping Skills for taking care of depression and cancer treatment

Alternative therapies

  • Massage therapy
  • Acupuncture
  • St. John’s Wort
  • Supplements of vitamins B6 or B12

o wonder even the thought of having cancer can make you depressed. Cancer is a really a life threatening disease. However there is no proof that cancer can lead to depression or vice versa.

Although there is no direct link between depression and cancer, the patients diagnosed with cancer experience high level of stress or sadness. Eventually these feelings result in depression.

Effect of Depression on Cancer

Depression can affect the treatment of cancer in patients who have cancer. Patients find it difficult to take active part in treatment as they are depressed and have negative feelings.

It is essential to treat depression in cancerous patients as it can generate more positive results.

Diagnostic Tests for Depression in patients who have cancer

The diagnosis of the depression in patients who have cancer is performed by trained and well qualified psychiatrists.

Doctors usually perform complete physical examination of the depressed patients who have cancer.  Patient is asked several questions associated with medical history and symptoms.

  • Physical Assessment
  • Thorough evaluation of symptoms
  • Standardized questionnaires
  • Blood tests for TSH and thyroxin levels for excluding hypothyroidism
  • Basic electrolytes and serum calcium for ruling out metabolic disturbances
  • Full blood count including ESR for ruling out a systemic infection

Signs and Symptoms of Depression in patients who have cancer

  • Feeling of sadness
  • Mood Disorders
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Difficulty in making decisions
  • Feeling of worthlessness, hopelessness
  • Feeling irritable or restlessness
  • Loss of interest in activities that were once pleasurable
  • Feeling tired frequently
  • Loss of memory
  • Loss of appetite
  • Suicidal tendency

Treatment of depression in people who have cancer

Psychiatrists need to treat depression in cancer patients after careful evaluation. As some of the antidepressants cause various side effects so doctors need to find the drugs that produces maximum benefits with least side effects in patients.

There are various therapies used by psychiatrists for treating depression in cancer patients.

  • Medications like antidepressants and antipsychotic medication

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy/ Psychotherapy/ or talk therapy that inculcates the positive attitude and behaviours in the patients
  • Physical exercise
  • Support from families/friends

Other therapies for treating depression in cancer patients

  • Psycho education where patients are made to understand their illness and ways of its treatment
  • Stress management training that involves training the patients to cope up with various stressful situations
  • Problem-solving therapy that assist in identifying the problems and learning ways for solving them.
  •  Support group where patients can express their emotions freely
  • Coping Skills for taking care of depression and cancer treatment

Common Tips for treating depression in cancer patients

  • Maintain strict regimen of taking medications
  • Maintain proper sleeping habits
  • Get engage in socialising activities
  • Take interest in pleasurable activities
  • Exercise regularly and remain physical active
  • Minimize use of alcohol and other illegal drugs
  • Eating healthy foods
  • Express feelings to close friends and family
  • Quit smoking

Depression is a serious disease that causes adverse effects on patient’s physical health, daily activities and relationships. Depression usually becomes chronic with recurrent episodes. If left untreated, Depression can lead to the severe complications.

Complications associated with depression

Risk for Suicide

As per the reliable estimates, Depression causes two-thirds of all suicide cases. The tendency of committing suicide is more profound in men as compared to women.

Whenever one talks of contemplating suicide, it should be taken very seriously. There are certain antidepressant medications that may enhance the risk for suicidal tendency in adolescents.

Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Depressed people are vulnerable to get addicted to alcohol or drug abuse. There is no such established study that links alcohol dependence and depression; however depressed people tend to consume alcohol or drugs to forget their sorrows or painful experiences.


Smoking is the most common complication of depressed people and in majority of the cases, depressed people are usually nicotine dependent. Patients with genetically induced depression consume nicotine as it improves their mood may by stimulating receptors in the brain.

Heart Disease and Heart Attacks

Depression may lead to severe heart disease and even causes heart attack in severe cases. Moreover, depression may also weaken response to medications in heat disease patients.

Some of the harmful effects caused by depression involve impaired blood flow to the heart, modifications in heart rate and increased risk for blood clotting.


Depressed patients are at increased risk of developing obesity. Moreover, obese people are more prone to depression as compared to non-obese people.

Both Obesity and depression have common risk factors such as lower social and economic group,  low physical activity, etc.

Mental Decline

Depression in the elderly people causes decline in mental functioning irrespective of dementia. Some studies have also linked Depression with Alzheimer’s disease.

The brain scans of the elderly depressed patients show increased shrinkage as compared to scans of non-depressed individuals.

Increasing Sensations of Pain

Depression is also associated with increased pain in patients suffering from arthritis or fibromyalgia.


The depression and anxiety adversely affect the life of cancer patients.

Sexual Problems

Depression often leads to decreased sex drive as depressed people lack the mood and vigour needed for active sex life. Long term depression results in loss of self-esteem and relationship problems.

Effects on Relationships

Effects on children

Depression in parents causes bad or negative influence on their relationships with their children. Thus, it may contribute to the risk for depression in their children.

Effects on Marriage

As per the estimates, depressed people have complicated married life and they usually have higher divorce rates as compared to healthy people.

Moreover, a depressed partner may also results in depression in other partner.

Effect on Work

Depressed individuals lose the interest in life and it adversely affects their work life. Depression increases the risk for unemployment and tends to make the workers unproductive.

Depressed workers develop various health problems and also take more time to recover. All these factors adversely affect their work and chances of promotion at workplace.