The bacteria named Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause Tuberculous arthritis. There are many few people who develop this kind of arthritis. The joints that are often involved are:
In many cases only one joint is involved. The TB in which spine is involved is also known as Pott’s disease. More than half of TB related bone infections are made up by it.
The symptoms include:
- Excessive sweating at night
- Decreased movements in joints
- Muscle atrophy
- Tender joints, joint swelling
- Muscle spasms
- Weakness, numbness and tingling in muscles
- Loss of appetite or weight loss
The condition starts very slowly and usually only one joint is involved in it. A physical examination must be used for showing the inflammation and swelling of the joints. Other tests include:
- Biopsy of the joint for detecting the bacteria
- Aspiration of fluid in joints
- CT scan of spine
- Chest x-ray
- Joint x-rays
- Tuberculin skin test
The main aim of treatment is the curing of infection with drugs that help in fighting the TB bacteria. A combination of several drugs is involved in active TB. There are many combinations of drugs. The drugs continue till the lab tests show the best medicines. Drugs which are most commonly used include:
One needs to take various pills during different times of the day. It may be for six months as well. Taking the pills as per suggested by the doctor is very essential. The nurse or doctor is required by law for reporting TB illness to health department. The pain will surely be relieved if heat or cold is applied to the joints and painkillers are taken. Surgery may also be needed sometimes.
Psoriatic arthritis is an arthritis type whose occurrence is found on the psoriasis of the skin. This type of arthritis is very common and red patches are caused on the body. There are many people with skin condition who are very likely to develop arthritis. The exact cause of psoriatic arthritis is unknown. However, a great role is played by the genes. People who have psoriasis have higher chances of developing arthritis as compared to general population.
The symptoms of psoriatic arthritis are very mild and only few joints are involved. The most common joints that are involved are the fingers and toes. In some cases, the disease is very severe and many joints are affected. Sometimes, even the spine is affected. When the disease affects the spine, the symptoms include burning, pain and stiffness in the sacrum and spine.
People who develop this kind of arthritis experience changes in their skin and nails. The skin worsens over a period of time. There are many tests and signs of psoriatic arthritis.
Often the doctor examines the patients for:
- Pitting in the nails and skin patches
- Joint swelling
Sometimes, the doctor may also suggest joint X-rays. NSAIDs may be subscribed by the doctor for reducing the inflammation and pain in the joints. If psoriatic arthritis is very severe, more powerful drugs may be given. These drugs include:
Sometimes, if the joints are very painful, they can be injected with steroid medications. In some rare cases, surgery is needed by the patients for replacing or repairing the damaged joints. A healthy mix of exercise and rest may also be suggested by the doctor. A patient may be helped with a physical therapy and his movement of specific joints will be improved surely. Cold and heat therapy may also be used. The disease is very mild and only few joints are affected.
The treatment of Anemia can involve medication and surgical procedure. Here we are going to discuss the medication in Anemia. First and foremost, the medication to treat anemia will primarily depend on the type of anemia, its severity and what the doctor considers is the best course of treatment for the patient.
Though there are many variations of treatment to choose from but mostly doctors start with a very basic treatment, unless the circumstances are extreme and there is a reason to believe that life of the patient is in danger. In such a case, the doctor may opt for a special treatment.
Mild anemia can be well treated by simple medications like vitamin supplements, iron supplements, antibiotics and platelet replacement under doctor’s guidance. To treat severe cases, there are intensive treatments like IV fluids and blood transfusions. While mostly doctors do not prefer this treatment but severe anemia (especially if caused by loss of blood) may require this type of aggressive treatment. Those patients who are hospitalized due to severe anemia symptoms are likely to need one (or all) of these treatments.
Also there are a couple of drugs that are useful and effective in fighting anemia. Some of the most common are as follows:
- Erythropoietin: a hormone produced by the kidneys
- Vasopressors: a drug to reduce blood pressure
However, these drugs should not be taken without doctor’s prescription as they can prove to be hazardous to health. When one is taking medication for anemia they have to be careful, as there are certain medications that can suppress the immune system that can eventually expose the person to other diseases and problems. Also in some cases the doctor may ask a patient to give up certain medications that they are taking at that time. It is done because some drugs interfere with red cell production and can cause anemia if taken for a long period of time.