Prostatitis is a non cancerous or benign disease of the prostate gland. It involves the inflammation of the prostate which is a gland which is found beneath the urinary bladder and encircles the urethra. It is located before the rectum, and a portion of this gland can be identified, during rectal examinations. This gland plays an important part in the reproductive systems of males.

Almost seventy per cent of the fluids which constitute semen consist of the secretions of this gland. Due to its location, a problem with the prostate gland generally results in urinary problems. The term Prostatitis covers a whole plethora of diseases associated with this gland.

There are four main types of Prostatitis:

  • Acute bacterial
  • Chronic bacterial
  • Chronic Prostatitis which does not involve any infection
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory type of Prostatitis

Symptoms:

Some of those bacteria which cause infections of the bladder are responsible for Acute bacterial type of Prostatitis. It can also be sexually transmitted and the infection could spread through a person’s blood stream to his prostate gland.

The symptoms are chills, fever and trembling. There is also increased frequency and urgency in urination. Chronic bacterial type is a very rare form of Prostatitis and results from an existing bacterial infection already present in this gland. There are no symptoms other than bladder infection. Chronic Prostatitis is also known as chronic pelvic-pain syndrome.

Rectal, testicle or pelvic pain is recurrent but there is no infection. Ejaculation and urination may be painful and there could be erectile dysfunction. The causes have not been identified yet. Asymptomatic inflammatory type is as the name suggests. There are no symptoms at all and the causes have still not been identified.

Diagnosis:

This largely depends on the doctor, who has to carefully go through the patient’s medical history and do all kinds of tests. Urinalysis is conducted to determine the exact kind of Prostatitis. X-ray, computerized tomography and ultrasound testing might also be required.

Treatment:

The major part of treatment is based on antibiotics which are administered though the patient’s mouth. Doctors also prescribe pain killers, plenty of fluids and sufficient rest. For acute cases or a weak immune system, intravenous antibiotics along with specialized care will be required. Some of the antibiotics which are prescribed may be long term.

Doctors may also ask the patient to undergo relaxation therapy, depending upon the type of Prostatitis.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases are the most common infectious diseases caused by the micro organisms and spread through any type of sexual activity, involving the sex organs.  These diseases are also termed as sexually Transmitted Infections.

If your sexual life and present symptoms suggest that you have a Sexually Transmitted Infection, you must go for laboratory tests that can identify the cause and detect co infections you might also have contracted.

  • Blood tests-Blood tests can confirm the diagnosis of HIV or stages of syphilis.
  • Urine samples-Some infections can be confirmed with a urine sample.
  • Fluid samples-Testing fluid and samples from the sores may be done to diagnose the type of infection.

Screening

Testing for a disease in someone who is asymptotic is called screening. Most of the time, the screening is not a usual part of health care. But there are exceptions

  • Everyone-The one particular Sexually Transmitted Infection screening test suggested for everyone ages 13 to 64 is a blood or saliva test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS.
  • Pregnant women should take utmost care-Screening for HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia and syphilis generally takes place at the first prenatal visit for all pregnant women. Gonorrhea and hepatitis C screening tests are advised at least once during pregnancy for women at high risk of these infections.
  • Women of age 21 and older-The Pap test screens for cervical abnormalities, including inflammation, precancerous changes and cancer. Starting at age 21, women should have a Pap test at least every three years.
  • Women under age 25 and sexually active-All sexually active women under age 25 should be tested for chlamydia infection. The chlamydia test uses a sample of urine or vaginal fluid you can collect yourself. Screening for gonorrhea is also recommended in sexually active women under age 25.
  • People with HIV-One already having HIV, raises the risk of catching other STIs. Frequent syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and herpes tests for people with HIV. Women with HIV may develop aggressive cervical cancer, so they should have Pap tests twice a year to screen for HPV.

As a word trichomonas refers to genus of anaerobic protests. So these are parasites. But in medical protest here it refers to be a sexually transmitted disease. These diseases are cause of virginities. This happens due to parasite which is protozoan here. This is really dangerous form the views of sexual relationships. Because it contains stress on host cells of human body, sometimes it is regarded with cell fragments after making a death of cell.

Trichomoniasis is meant to be a reaction which is being got by urogenital tracts. Most common cause is urethra and the vagina of a woman.

Symptoms:

Well this is true that this disease happens due to sexual relationship. So the man is also responsible for these kinds of disease. But while we are talking about the symptoms here, we may not know about the real condition of symptoms in human. A woman is there who feels first symptom of this disease or we can say that only a woman can experience its symptoms. Symptoms are here including with inflammation of the cervix with urethra and vagina. This produces itching and burning at the real edge of disease. This is not really well because a person doesn’t want these all in body at least.

Diagnosis:

The diagnosis is not most easy process about any problem or disease. The formations which are used to solve any problem are the most part of health treatments. The simple formation of diagnosing process says about to visualized trichomonads via a microscope. In a woman this treatment process is really complex. Because a woman’s vagina is really complex to know and to take a sample from that is really virtual thing which we know about it.

An examiner who checks about this disease may get some samples forms her vagina by inserting a speculum into the vagina, after that he is always free to take samples from there by using a cotton-tipped applicator.

This sample is now free to go for laboratory. These samples go to laboratory for checking them by microscope to know the real cause of this disease. In labs examiners do checking for samples. Examiners are there to analyze everything about the disease. So that is not a complex thing to consider that examiners in labs are not known about these samples. They may reveal red ulcerations on the vaginal cervix that is really very true for each kind of treatment.

Treatments:

Treatments are really easy for this disease. Only a caution is here by which we can take help. If you are pregnant and non-pregnant, then you don’t need to take worry. You could get some precautions from earlier age. But there are some pills which are really good to take to treat these diseases. If you take 2000 mg (GLAGYL) pill once from the mouth, then there are least chances to get in for this disease.

Some experts say that here is only a way by that you can get recovered from any disease that is precaution.

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. LGV is caused by serotypes L1, L2, and L3 of the bacteria Chlamydia trichromatic. These serotypes differ from those that cause trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, urethritis, and cervicitis because they can invade and reproduce in regional lymph nodes.

Symptoms

Once infected there is an incubation period of anywhere from 3 days to 6 weeks (on average 10-14 days) before any signs or symptoms become apparent.

Its symptoms include three stages are as follows:

  • In first stage, a small skin lesion at site of entry, small painless papule appears. Ulcerates, heals and disappears within a few days and remain unnoticed.
  • In second stage inguinal lymph nodes on one or both the sides starts enlarging, forming large, may have fever and malaise sometimes whereas in women, backache or pelvic pain is common. The initial lesions may be on the cervix or upper vagina.
  • In Third stage, women suffer from fever, pain, itching, and pus-filled or bloody diarrhea. Its chronic infection result in severe scaring causing major deformation of the genitals.

Diagnosis

LGV is suspected in patients who have genital ulcers, swollen inguinal lymph nodes, or proctitis and who live in, have visited, or have sexual contact with people from areas where infection is common. Serologic testing may not be specific for serotype (has some cross reactivity with other chlamydia species) and can suggest LGV from other forms because of their difference in dilution, 1:64 more likely to be LGV and lower than 1:16 is likely to be other chlamydia forms (medicine). An oozing, abnormal connection (fistula) in the rectal area, drainage through the skin from lymph nodes in the groin If polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests on infected material are positive, subsequent restriction endonuclease pattern analysis of the amplified outer membrane protein A gene can be done to determine the genotype.

Treatment

This condition can be cured with the right antibiotics. Antibiotics that are commonly prescribed to treat LGV include tetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, and azithromycin. Treatment involves antibiotics and may involve drainage of the buboes or abscesses by needle aspiration or incision

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection disease transmitted when people have sexual relations. Chlamydia is a disease caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It is most commonly sexually transmitted. Mostly it is found among, young adults, people living in urban areas, people with lower social and economic status.

Causes of Chlamydia

Chlamydia is an infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Sexually active individuals and individuals with multiple partners are at highest risk. This can be transmitted in two ways:

  • Sexual interactions through oral, anal or vaginal
  • Mother to child during birth through birth canal

Symptoms

Symptoms of chlamydia infection may depend on gender. As many as 1 in 4 men with chlamydia have no symptoms. In men, chlamydia may produce symptoms similar to gonorrhea.

Symptoms include in men:

  • In infected men no symptoms range from 25% to 50%.
  • Discharge from the penis
  • During urination, pain and burning
  • Testicular tenderness or pain

Symptoms included in women:

  • Only 30% of women have symptoms of this disease
  • Bleeding after sexual relations
  • Pain in lower abdominal and during urination
  • Discharge from the vagina.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse

Diagnosis

This can be diagnosed by some examinations and tests advised by a doctor. The diagnosis of chlamydia infection involves sampling of the urethral discharge in males or cervical secretions in females. If an individual engages in anal sexual contact, samples from the rectum may also be needed. The sample is sent for a fluorescent or monoclonal antibody test, DNA probe test, or cell culture. Some of these tests may also be performed on urine samples. Tenderness for women in the area of the sex organs, pus from the vagina or penis, and fever could indicate an infection. Some diagnostic tests may include obtaining cultures or sending urine to the laboratory to determine if you are infected.

Treatment

The usual treatment for chlamydia is antibiotics, including tetracyclines, azithromycin, or erythromycin. Sexual partners must be treated to prevent passing the infection back and forth. There is no significant immunity following the infection and a person may become repeatedly infected.

 

The virus that causes mono (Epstein-Barr virus) is not spread as easily as most people think. If you follow these tips, you can reduce the chance of spreading or catching mono.

Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, a member of the herpes virus family. The disease develops if the virus is encountered for the first time at an age when the response of the body’s immune system is most vigorous (that is, during adolescence and early adult life). The peak incidence of the illness occurs around the ages of 15 and 17.

Mononucleosis spreads by contact with moisture from the mouth and throat of a person who is infected with the virus.

Complications are rare and hospitalization is seldom required when they do occur. The most common complication is dehydration from not drinking enough fluids. Breathing may be obstructed by enlarged tonsils, adenoids and other lymph tissue in the back of the throat. On rare occasions, the enlarged spleen will rupture if the abdomen is hit or strained.

Additionally, the person may develop hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), pericarditis (inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or hemolytic anemia (destruction of the red blood cells).

Diagnosis:

The diagnosis is often obvious from the symptoms and examination of a blood smear, which shows many atypical lymphocytes (white blood cells).There are two general types of blood tests for mono.

The first is called a monospot test (or a spot test). Monospot relies on clumping of horse red blood cells by mononucleosis antibodies presumed to be in a person’s serum. The other test is called the heterophil antibodies test. This test looks for antibodies (proteins produced by the immune system to counter the virus) that possess the unique ability to cause clumping of red cells taken from sheep’s blood.

A physical examination sometimes reveals an enlarged liver and/or enlarged spleen, or the liver and spleen may simply be tender when gently pressed.

Defensive Measures:

There is no vaccine for Epstien-Barr Virus. There are steps to prevent mono:

  • Wash hands frequently.
  • Avoid close contact with those who have mono.
  • Do not let your child share cups, bowls, glasses, or utensils with someone who is infected.
  • Never allow your child to share a toothbrush.
  • Use disposable paper cups and paper towels in the bathroom.
  • Do not share toys, teething rings, or similar items.
  • Frequently wash and sterilize pacifiers and bottles.
  • Disinfect shared surfaces, such as tabletops, kitchen counters, and play equipment.
  • Make it clear, especially to teenagers, that kissing a person infected with mono is off-limits.

Clinical Diagnosis

Mono can be diagnosed by the ways of medical history given by the patient, and the physical examination which is done. This is known as a “clinical diagnosis”, and here doctor generally does not need a wide variety of expensive.

Doctor will look at the symptoms and the age of the patient because people infected with EBV are more likely to develop mono if they are a teenager or young adult.

A physical evaluation is made based on the symptoms and possible exposure to the disease by asking questions and by examining signs of the infection such as looking at the back of the throat, listen to the lungs and checking the skin and pressing on abdomen.

A doctor examines enlarged lymph nodes. The spleen often is enlarged during mono infections, although this can be difficult to determine without testing – unless the enlargement is significant.

Blood Test

If a doctor is unsure of the diagnosis of mono through clinical diagnosis, there are some basic blood tests available such as:

A Monospot Test involves a blood test. Blood will be analyzed in a laboratory for antibodies. Antibodies are a specific component of immune system that fights against infection. If body detects EBV, it can develop a type of antibody called Heterophile Antibodies. If Heterophile Antibodies in blood. Then mono spot test is “positive.” A positive mono spot test accompanied by the mono symptoms results in a diagnosis of infectious mono. However, mono spot tests can be false-positive, about 10-15% of the time.

It is possible for the Monospot Test  to come back negative early in the course of the infection (False negative). If the mononucleosis test is negative, your doctor may test for an infection with Cytomegalo Virus (CMV) or other organisms. CMV can cause a mono-like illness.

If mono spot test is negative but the patient have all the symptoms of mono, more testing will be needed to make a diagnosis.

Complete Blood Count Test (CBC) may be done to rule out other infections or complications of mono.

Liver Test may be done to find out whether the virus has affected the liver. A blood chemistry test may reveal abnormalities in liver function.

Mono or infectious mononucleosis is a kind of infection which occurs in human body due to a virus that is called as Epstein-Barr. This virus is invented through saliva, so a name is here indicating it as “kissing disease”. This disease often happens in teenagers, mostly between 15 to 17 years of age. Well however anybody can get this disease at any phase of age.

Some symptoms to this disease are as:

  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Headache
  • Sore muscles
  • Skin rash

What are the causes?

The virus that is responsible for causing mono is found almost everywhere and is affecting people around the globe. It is believed that almost 80 to 90% of the people have been infected by this virus at some point or the other in their lives. The infection produces antibodies that are at a later stage found in the blood of the infected people.

How mono spreads?

This disease has a weird way to spread. This spreads via kissing and coughing, sneezing and by being in contact with any kind of saliva (which is affected by this disease before). It can be spread by being in direct contact of patients. Like if you are using utensils and straws of patient until he/she has been affected with someone who is healthy person.

How is mono diagnosed?

Diagnosis of mono symptoms is mainly done through blood tests like monospot and heterophile antibody tests. The test basically works on the body’s immune system that produces measurable antibodies to fight the infecting virus.

How is mono treated?

There is no specific treatment for mono. The diseases like viral fever passes by in its own defined time course. However, there are medications prescribed by doctors to relieve the symptoms of mono.

Pericarditis is a condition in which the sac-like covering around the heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed. A characteristics chest pain is often present. The hearts sits in the center of the chest and is surrounded by a sac called the pericardium. This sac has two layers, one that fits tightly onto the heart muscle and another looser layer surrounding the inner layer. Inflammation of these tissue layers surrounding the heart is referred to as pericarditis.

Causes of Pericarditis

Pericarditis is usually a complication of viral infections, most commonly echovirus or coxsackie virus. Less frequently, it is caused by influenza or HIV infection. Infections with bacteria can lead to bacterial pericarditis (also called purulent pericarditis). Some fungal infections can also produce pericarditis. There are many causes of pericarditis. Most often the cause is unknown. In this case, the condition is called idiopathic pericarditis.

The causes of pericarditis are varied, including viral infections of the pericardium, idiopathic causes, uremic pericarditis, bacterial infections of the precordium (for i.e. Mycobacterium tuberculosis), post-infarct pericarditis (pericarditis due to heart attack), or Dressler’s pericarditis.

Other causes include:

  • Heart attack (see post-MI pericarditis)
  • Injury (including surgery) or trauma to the chest, esophagus, or heart
  • Medications that suppress the immune system
  • Myocarditis
  • Radiation therapy to the chest

Pericarditis most often affects men aged 20 – 50. It usually follows respiratory infections. In children, it is most commonly caused by adenovirus or coxsackie virus.

Symptoms of Pericarditis

  • Ankle, Feet, and Leg Swelling (occasionally)
  • Anxiety
  • Breathing difficulty when lying down
  • Chest pain, caused by the inflamed pericardium rubbing against the heart
  • May radiate to the neck, shoulder, back, or abdomen
  • Often increases with deep breathing and lying flat, and may increase with coughing and swallowing
  • Pleuritis type: a sharp, stabling pain
  • Usually relieved by sitting up and leaning forward
  • Dry Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Fever

Some symptoms may depend upon where the inflammation may be in the heart lining.

  • There may be pain with deep breaths and shortness of breath because of that pain, if there is inflammation in the pericardium near lung tissue.
  • Pain may occur with swallowing if the inflammation is near the esophagus.
  • Other symptoms depend upon the specific cause of the pericarditis. For example, infections may present with fever, chills and other non-specific symptoms such as muscle aches and general malaise.

Diagnosis of Pericarditis

When listening to the heart with a stethoscope, the health care provider can hear a sound called a pericardial rub. The heart sounds may be muffled or distant. There may be other signs of fluid in the pericardium (pericardial effusion).

If the disorder is severe, there may be:

  • Crackles in the lungs
  • Decreased breath sounds
  • Other signs of fluid in the space around the lungs ( pleural effusion)

The electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) shows electrical activity of the heart. In pericarditis, there are often abnormalities that sometimes can help with the diagnosis. Unfortunately, many normal variants can mimic the changes in pericarditis or the EKG may be normal.

A chest x-ray may suggest enlargement of heart tissue and can be used to rule out other problems within the chest.

Echocardiography or ultra sound the heart is often used to confirm the diagnosis. The cardiologist looks for the presence of fluid in the pericardial sac, although in many mild cases of acute pericarditis, there is no pericardial fluid seen with echocardiography.

Blood testing can be used to look for specific causes of pericarditis like infection, leukemia, kidney failure, connective tissue diseases or thyroid abnormalities.

Treatment of Pericarditis

The cause of pericarditis must be identified, if possible.

Medications include:

  • Analgesic for pain
  • Antibiotics for bacterial pericarditis
  • Antifungal medications for fungal pericarditis
  • Aspirin or a no steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen for inflammation of the pericardium
  • Corticosteroids such as prednisone (in some patients)
  • Colchicine

Neuropathic Pain is caused by injury in tissues. It is a persistent pain and is complex in nature. The nerve fibers can be damaged and can become dysfunctional with neuropathic pain. The damaged nerve fibers send wrong signals to other centers of pain. It involves a change in functions of nerve at the areas around the injury and at the location of injury.

One example of this pain is phantom limb syndrome. This occurs when a body part like leg or arm has been removed due to illness or accident but the brain gets pain messages from the nerves that transfers impulses from the missing or removed limb. This pain affects the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system and it occurs to around 2 million people in USA alone and is becoming common these days.

Causes of Neuropathic Pain

  • Chemotherapy
  • Intake of Alcohol
  • Amputation
  • Disease like Diabetes
  • Face related nerve problems
  • AIDS or HIV problems
  • Hip ,leg or back problems
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Shingles
  • Spine surgery

Symptoms of Neuropathic Pain

  • Burning and shooting pain
  • Numbness and tingling in body parts

Diagnosis of Neuropathic Pain

A physical exam and an interview will be conducted by the doctor and the doctor may ask questions related to the pain history like when the pain occurs, how long it occurs, what are the conditions in which it particularly happens whether it occurs in day or in night or both.

Intake of drugs like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aleve or motrin can give relieve from pain. Anti-depressant drugs and strong pain killers like morphine may work in certain cases.

Electrically stimulating the nerves which include neuropathic pain might control signs of pain. Conditions like diabetes require proper management of the disorder. Pain which are uncontrollable requires invasive or use of implantable device therapies. it responds poorly in case of normal treatments and can get worse instead of subtle over time. It can result in serious disability also.