Mono is known as “Mononucleosis” is a type of infectious viral responsible for fever, soar throat and enlarged lymphs. Further to that, there are many complications and risk factors that are associated with this health condition.

Common complications for mononucleosis are noted down as under:

  • Mild inflammation of the liver, or hepatitis.
  • An enlarged spleen occurs in mono. Mono develops traumatic rupture of the spleen. Symptoms of this are a severe pain in the left upper abdomen, suddenly.
  • Swelling in the throat and tonsils obstructs airway passage, bleeding due to decrease rate of clotting of blood, anemia, and heart burn.
  • A rare complication of mono is obstruction in breathing due to swollen throat.
  • A decrease inn number of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia).
  • Decrease in number of neutrophils (white blood cell (WBC) that helps fight against infection).
  • Hepatitis occurrence in patient not to consider as serious.

There are some rare complications need to be cured must as soon as possible. These rare complications affect the patient severly. Some of these complications are short listed bellow:

•           Hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells).

•           Pericarditis (inflammation of sac around heart and its neighbouring

•           muscles)

•           Myocarditis (heart muscle)

•           Encephalitis (Brain and its constituent muscles)

•           Spleen rupturation

•           Spinal chord disturbance

•           Problems related to cardiac

•           Lymphatic cancer (Burkitt’s lymphoma)

•           Cancer of throat

•           Cancer in nose

EBV is assisted with some types of cancers, most commonly “lymphomas”. Victims are oftenly those people whose immune systems have been compromised due to disease or immune suppressive drugs. EBV infection has also been found to be associated with two types of cancer:

•           Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (cancer of the pharynx and nose)

•           Burkitt’s lymphoma of the jaw among children.


Mononucleosis or mono is a viral disease that affects certain blood cells. It gets its name “mononucleosis” as it refers to the increase of mononuclear cells (white blood cells). The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes mono and it is a member of the herpes virus family. Most cases of mononucleosis occur sporadically.

Transmission of Mono

The virus that causes mononucleosis is spread by

  • Person-to-person contact
  • Through saliva on hands or toys
  • By kissing


Mumps is also an infectious disease that causes the salivary glands in the cheeks and under the jaw to swell. The mumps last for about 10 to 12 days. It takes about a week for the swelling to disappear.

However unlike mono, Mumps was a common illness until the mumps vaccine was licensed in 1967. Most children are immunized against mumps at 15 months of age and when they enter kindergarten.

Transmission of Mumps

Mumps is transmitted through inhaling infected droplets such as from a sneeze or cough.

Now let us discuss the symptoms of the two diseases.

Symptoms of Mono

  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Nausea
  • Hepatitis
  • Jaundice
  • Headache
  • Stiffness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Sore muscles
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing

Symptoms of Mumps

  • Headache,
  • Fever,
  • Ear ache,
  • Problems swallowing,
  • Pain when chewing,
  • Swelling of the glands in front of the ear and under the lines of the jaw

Complication of Mono

  • Dehydration
  • Blood disorders
  • Neurological and psychological problems
  • Rupture of the spleen

Complications of Mumps

  • Deafness,
  • Meningitis
  • Swelling of the testicles or ovaries (if mumps occurs after puberty) will occur

To conclude both these diseases are caused due to viral infections but are mostly non fatal and rest is the best treatment for them.

All arthritis patients are aware about the risks involved in the disease. Arthritis a chronic disease affects the joints and bones of a human body. Today the disease is not restricted to affecting the old people but even small children and middle aged people suffer from arthritis. This disease is not curable but there are many treatments available for the treatment of this disease. Arthritis cause wearing of body tissues and creates pains in different organs of the body. As a result of which it majorly affects people above the age of 50.

Arthritis today is seen as a leading cause of disability in men and women. There are so many types of arthritis and each type leads to the same problems. Complication of arthritis is many because of the different types of arthritis. Arthritis in itself covers more than 100 diseases which can affect different parts of the body. It is long term disease and cure for it is really impossible. One can only take treatment for controlling the pain but cannot get rid of this disease. Therapy and frequent massage can help you overcome pain.

Arthritis has many complications and today it is one of the reasons of disability. The complication of arthritis is that it is of different types and each type has its own complications. The common types of arthritis are rheumatoid and osteoarthritis. Both these types of arthritis can be dangerous. Osteoarthritis is a disease which causes joint pains and makes your body parts stiff. In such conditions a person is not free to do any kind of activity. It makes the cartilage loose which makes it tender. Also the area of joints swells in osteoarthritis. In rheumatoid arthritis a person feels similar type of joint pain and a person can feel pain in many different parts of his body like fingers, wrists, knees toes etc. this kind of arthritis is comparatively difficult to diagnose as the symptoms are very much deceptive.

Other symptoms like swelling, stiffness are also experienced. To overcome these complications of arthritis the arthritis patient must rake proper care and treatment. He must visit good doctors who will advise him to take certain treatments. Doctors usually suggest pain killers so that patients get some relief. Only if proper care is taken the pain will reduce. One cannot exactly tell how long it will take as it totally depends upon the severity of the disease. Thus proper care should be taken to avoid complications of arthritis.

It is been observed that most cases of anemia are mild including anemia caused due to chronic disease. Even though it is to be taken in consideration that even in mild anemia the oxygen transport in blood is reduced that cause fatigue and also decrease physical capacity.

Iron deficiency Anemia which is either severe or moderate can cause reduction of endurance. Reduction in red blood cells diminishes the body’s capacity to absorb oxygen from the lungs. Severe anemia if left untreated can cause serious problems can occur in longer run, it can lead to secondary organ damage or dysfunction which also includes heart failure and heart arrhythmia. Anemia which is inherited like Thalassemia major, pernicious anemia and sickle cell anemia can be life threatening particularly Thalassemia major and sickle cell anemia which have their devastating effects on small children.

Here are some of the severe complications of anemia:

Complications of Anemia in Pregnant Women – Pregnant women affected by anemia can have an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes especially if they are anemia patient in the first trimester.

Complications of Anemia in Children – Severe anemia in children can stop the growth and can also have adverse affect in mental development. Children suffering from anemia may have less concentration power and decreased alertness. Children may also have risk of stroke if they are suffering from severe iron deficiency anemia.

Complications of Anemia in Elderly – Anemia can have more severe complications in old people in comparison to young people and is quite common in older people.  The effects of anemia in elderly include increased risk of falls and decreased physical strength. Anemia can also increase the severity of cardiac conditions which includes reducing survival chances of a cardiac failure and heart attacks. In older people even mild anemia can worsen the already existing dementia and can also possibly lead to cognitive impairment.

Complications of Anemia in Cancer Patients – Anemia is a serious problem for people who are suffering from cancer as in people who are suffering from common cancer the presence of anemia means a shorter survival period of time for them.

Complications of Anemia in Heart failure patients – The lethal combination of anemia and heart failure increase the chances of death or hospitalization of a patient from 30 to 60%.

Complications of Anemia in Kidney disease Patients – A person suffering from kidney disease if contacted with anemia than it increases it chances of death and risk of heart disease.

The condition in which there are not sufficient red blood cells in the blood of a human due to the premature destruction of red blood cells is known as Hemolytic anemia. There are several types of Hemolytic anemia which are described individually. Hemolytic anemia can be caused due to various reasons which can be harmless or even life threatening. The general forms of Hemolytic anemia can either be inherited or acquired. The treatment Hemolytic anemia is totally based on the cause lead to this condition.

Causes of Hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia is caused when the bone marrow is unable to make production of red blood cells to be replaced with the dead red blood cells which died due to premature destruction. Hemolytic anemia can either be caused by intrinsic factors (within blood) or extrinsic factors (outside blood). Intrinsic factors are usually present at the time of birth of child. Intrinsic factors include differences in the protein which is inside a red blood cell that are responsible for carrying oxygen and abnormalities in the proteins that are responsible to build red blood cells in the blood. The extrinsic factors include blood clotting in small blood vessels, infections, abnormal response from immune system and side effects from medications.

Types of Hemolytic anemia

The various types of Hemolytic anemia are Thalassemia, Malaria, Sickle cell anemia, Hemolytic anemia due to the deficiency of G6PD, blood transfusion of blood with a different blood group, secondary immune Hemolytic anemia.


The symptoms shown in a patient suffering from Hemolytic anemia are fever, fatigue, chills, dark urine, increased heart rate, jaundice, dark urine, enlarged spleen, pale skin and short breath.

Tests of Hemolytic anemia

There are specific tests conducted in order to identify the type of Hemolytic anemia a patient is suffering from.  These tests are conducted when Hemolytic anemia is confirmed or suspected. Serum LDH, free hemoglobin serum or urine, serum levels, blood platelet count, white blood count differential are some of the tests which can be recommended to a patient suffering from Hemolytic anemia.


As stated earlier the treatment of Hemolytic anemia totally depends on the cause and the type of Hemolytic anemia a patient is suffering from.  Iron replacement, folic supplements, corticosteroids may be recommended and in case of severe Hemolytic anemia a patient can undergo blood transfusion or the removal of spleen.


The complications of Hemolytic anemia also depend upon the cause and type. In severe Hemolytic anemia the risk of cardiovascular collapse is high and it can also worsen already existing cerebro-vascular disease, heart disease and lung disease.

Generally, Anemia is described as a condition where a person does not have appropriate number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the blood. In other words a person with low blood count is considered by physicians as anemic. According to doctors there are three types of anemia arising from the RBC count. This classification is done depending upon the size of the RBCs that are microcytic, normocytic and macrocytic anemia.

  • Microcytic Anemia: This condition is when the RBCs are less than normal. The main reasons of microcytic anemia are iron deficiency or inappropriate level of iron in the body. Sometimes a person suffers from Microcytic Anemia when he has Thalassemia, it is an inherited disorder of hemoglobin.
  • Normocytic Anemia: In this the RBCs are normal in size but are less in number. It is mostly accompanied with chronic diseases or this type of anemia connected with the kidney disease.
  • Macrocytic: Here the RBCs are bigger than normal the main cause of this is anemia is alcoholism.

Another thing that should be mentioned here is that in medical terms Anemia is a manifestation of a disease rather than a disease itself. The doctors generally determine the reason on the basis of the duration a person has been suffering from Anemia. It helps in determining the gravity or severity of the case and subsequent treatment as well.

In chronic cases, symptoms usually start gradually and moves forward slowly but in acute cases symptoms are normally sudden and even very more painful. In developed countries like the United States, 2% to 10% of total population is anemic. In developing countries like India this rate is even higher especially in young women and adolescent girls due to excessive menstrual bleeding and lack of adequate nutrition.

As anemia is a condition arising from the count of RBCs lets understand that these blood cells main function is to supply oxygen from the lungs to other organs of the body.

These RBCs are made within the bone marrow and many factors are involved in their production. For example,

  • Iron is a very important component of the hemoglobin molecule
  • Erythropoietin, a molecule secreted by the kidneys, promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.

To have exact number of RBCs and prevention of anemia requires synergy between the kidneys, the bone marrow, and nutrients within the body. If they are not functioning properly and getting proper nutrition then it would be difficult to maintain adequate red blood cell count and proper functioning may be difficult to maintain.

Anemia can cause different kind of complications like:

  • Blood loss
  • Inadequate production of RBC’s
  • Nutritional problems
  • Fatigue
  • Organ Dysfunction
  • Heart Failure

Finally let’s discuss the treatments for anemia. Some of the most important treatments of anemia are:

  • Blood transfusions
  • Blood and marrow stem cell transplants
  • Oral iron transplants
  • Iron replacement therapy

Using magnetic fields for stimulating the nerve cells in brain can lead to the improvement in symptoms of depression. This procedure is called as Transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a relatively new procedure that is recommended in patients who do not respond to other standard treatments such as medications and psychotherapy.

Although the exact role played by transcranial magnetic stimulation in relieving depression is not clear, the magnetic pulses stimulate the nerve cells in brain and thereby improve the depression symptoms in patients.

Preparation for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation is performed as an outpatient procedure in doctor’s office. There is no elaborative preparation needed as it is non-invasive procedure that doesn’t require anaesthesia.

  • Your psychiatrist will perform complete physical examination before surgery to ensure that it is a safe for you.
  • You may be asked to conduct blood tests or other laboratory tests to ascertain that you are medically fit for the procedure
  • You should inform your doctor regarding any medications you are taking as you may be asked to stop or adjust the doses of certain medications before the surgery
  • You should inform your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to get pregnant.
  • You should inform your doctor if there are any implanted metallic devices in your body because Transcranial magnetic stimulation is not recommended in such cases.
  • You should also inform the doctor of any previous surgeries or associated health conditions.

Duration of Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Patient needs a series of treatment sessions for optimal results. The procedure is usually performed daily at least five times a week for 5 to 6 weeks.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation procedure

Before the procedure, the psychiatrist identifies the most suitable region for placing the magnets on your head. Moreover, psychiatrist also decides about the optimal dose of magnetic energy for the treatment.

  • You may be asked to sit comfortably in a reclining chair and wear earplugs during the treatment.
  • Psychiatrist places an electromagnetic coil against your head. He/she switches the electromagnetic coil off and on repeatedly couple of times for producing stimulating pulses.  It causes a tapping sound that lasts only for few seconds followed by pause.
  • Doctor will determine the appropriate dosage of magnetic energy required and increases the magnetic dose until your fingers or hands begin to twitch.
  • Depending on your symptoms and side effects, the amount of stimulation is changed during the procedure.
  • After the placement and dose of electromagnetic coil are determined, your treatment begins and it lasts for about 40 minutes.

Risks of Transcranial magnetic stimulation

The Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a relatively safe procedure and causes mild side effects.

Most of these side effects are short term in nature and usually improve after the first week or two of treatment.

Common Side Effects

  • Headache
  • Lightheadedness
  • Spasms or twitching of facial muscles
  • Scalp discomfort at the site of stimulation
  • Tingling


In some rare cases, the procedure may lead to certain serious side effects.

  • Seizures
  • Mania in patients with bipolar disorder
  • Hearing loss due to inadequate ear protection

Results of Transcranial magnetic stimulation

  • In majority of the cases, depression symptoms will improve or diminish completely.
  • The optimal results are obtained after several weeks of treatment
  • Patient should continue to take antidepressant medication or attend psychotherapy sessions even after transcranial magnetic stimulation.
  • The effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation may improve once the optimal sites for stimulation and numbers of stimulations needed are identified.

Although Bacteria and Viruses are major causative agents of Pneumonia; however there are some forms of pneumonia that are caused by fungi.

One such fungal infection of the lungs is caused by fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci and called as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia.

Causes of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

The fungus responsible for causing Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is Pneumocystis jiroveci. It is commonly found in our environment and is generally harmless in healthy people. However it causes infection in immunocompromised patients.

Risk Factors of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

There are certain patients who are at high risk of getting Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia.

                    Individuals who are taking treatment for cancer

                    Individuals who have HIV/AIDS

                    Individuals who have undergone Organ or bone marrow transplant

                    Individuals who are on chronic use of corticosteroids

                    Individuals who are on immunosuppressive medications

Symptoms of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

The symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients suffering from AIDS are less severe, develop gradually and may even take months to appear. 

In case of patients infected with pneumocystis pneumonia but without AIDS/HIV show more severe symptoms that develop rapidly.

Common Symptoms of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

                    Dry Cough


                    Rapid breathing

                    Shortness of breath that worsens on exertion

Diagnostic test of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

The diagnostic tests for detecting the presence of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia may comprises of following tests.

                    Chest X-ray to get detailed images of internal structures such as lungs

                    Sputum gram stain for detecting the presence and type of bacteria/infectious agents

                    Blood culture for identifying the type of infectious agent

                    Complete blood count for detecting the increased number of WBC 

                    Bronchoscopy involves insertion of bronchoscope into airways and respiratory tract via mouth or nose for collecting sample from inside the airways.

                    Chest CT scan is done in rare and severe cases

                    Lung biopsy is done in rare cases where a piece of lung tissue is extracted from body for examination.

Treatment of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

The treatment therapy of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia may differ from one patient to another depending on the severity of the symptoms.

                    Oral antibiotics are given for less severe cases

                    Intravenous antibiotics are administered in severe cases

                    The corticosteroids are prescribed for patients whose blood oxygen level reduces below a certain level.

                    Oxygen therapy is administered to those patients who have low oxygen level in their bloodstream.

                    Patients are administered with chest therapy that includes chest tapping, incentive spirometry, rhythmic inhalation and coughing.

Prevention of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

Preventive therapy is suggested in the patients with compromised immune system.

                    Patients with AIDS/HIV

                    Bone marrow transplant recipients

                    Organ transplant recipients

                    Individuals who are on long-term, high-dose corticosteroids

                    Individuals who were infected by this disease earlier

Complications of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

The severe cases of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia may lead to various life threatening complications as mentioned below.

                    Respiratory failure

                    Pleural effusion


Streptococcus Pneumoniae is responsible for causing pneumonia in vast majority of the population. This notorious bacterium not only infects the upper respiratory tract but also spread to the other organs of the body such as blood, lungs, or nervous system.

Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae is known as Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

Risk Factors of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

There are certain individuals who are at high risk for Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

                    Children younger than 5 years

                    Old and adults above 65 years of age

                    Individuals with associated medical conditions like chronic heart, lung, or liver diseases

                    Individuals with sickle cell anaemia

                    People with HIV/AIDS

                    Individuals with organ transplants

                    Individuals who take immune-compromising medications

Causes of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

The Pneumococcal Pneumonia is caused by wide range of infectious agents including viruses, bacteria, and even fungi.

                    Streptococcus pneumoniae

Transmission of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

You should be aware of various ways by which Pneumococcal Pneumonia can be transmitted.

                    By getting in touch with sick people

                    By individuals who carry bacteria in their throat

                    By respiratory droplets from the nose/mouth of infected person

                    From children who carry bacteria in their throats

Symptoms of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

The onset of the symptoms of Pneumococcal pneumonia is immediate when the patient experiences severe shaking chill followed by common symptoms of Pneumonia.

                    High fever

                    Pain in the chest

                    Breathe Shortness


                    Rapid breathing

Other symptoms includes Nausea, Muscle aches, Headache, Tiredness and Vomiting.

Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

The diagnostic tests for Pneumococcal Pneumonia include the following.

                    Physical exam

                    Laboratory  tests

                    Chest x-ray

                    Blood Test

                    Saliva Test

                    Lung fluid Test

Treatment of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

The treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia is done by using antibiotics and patients can get symptomatic improvement within 12 to 36 hours after taking medicine.

                    Patient is asked to drink plenty of fluids including juices, water, tea, lemonade, etc.

                    Oxygen is usually used in hospitalised patient with breathing problems

                    Use of humidified air helps in loosening the mucus

                    Patient may take aspirin, NSAIDs, for controlling fever. However, Aspirin should not be given to children.

                    Patient is advised to take plenty of rest.

                    Chest therapy is used for loosening the mucus so that it can be expelled out by deep coughing.

Complications of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

The complications of Pneumococcal Pneumonia lead to the following severe conditions.


                    Lung problems

                    Heart problems

Prevention of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

The prevention of Pneumococcal Pneumonia can be done by taking care of following points.

                    Practice a healthy lifestyle

                    Avoid smoking

                    Avoid contact with infected people

                    Maintain good hygiene

                    Avoid contact with people infected with measles or chickenpox


Knowing the infectious agent that has caused the infection is the key to the Pneumonia treatment. That’s why; Pneumonia is classified in many types depending on the causative agents.

One such causative agent is atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae that causes Mycoplasma Pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is a very small bacterium and does not occur free living (obligate parasite) in nature.

Causes of Mycoplasma Pneumonia

As we had discussed in the opening paragraphs that Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by atypical bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It usually causes infection in school going children and adults below 40 years of age.

Individuals at high risk of getting Mycoplasma Pneumonia comprises of persons working or living in crowded areas like congested colonies, schools and homeless shelters.

Symptoms of Mycoplasma Pneumonia

The symptoms of Mycoplasma Pneumonia are similar to mild symptoms of pneumonia caused by other bacteria.  The onset of the infection is gradual and takes 1 to 3 weeks to appear.

Common symptoms of Mycoplasma Pneumonia: 

                    Low fever

                    Less chances of shaking chills


                    Body aches/ chest pain

                    Excessive sweating

                    Joint pain

                    Sore throat

                    Dry Cough or cough with little sputum

                    Abdominal pain in some cases

                    Feeling weak

Complicated Symptoms of Mycoplasma Pneumonia

The complicated cases of Mycoplasma Pneumonia may present the following symptoms.

                    Pain in ear or eyes

                    Pain the muscles 

                    Rapid breathing

                    Stiffness in joints

                    Neck lump

                    Rashes or Skin lesions

Diagnostic Tests for Mycoplasma Pneumonia

The diagnostic tests for persons with suspected pneumonia comprise of following tests.

                    Complete medical evaluation

                    Physical exam

                    Chest x-ray

In addition to these tests, the doctors may recommend several other tests depending on the severity of the infection.


                    CT scan of the chest

                    Open lung biopsy

                    Complete blood count (CBC)

                    Blood cultures

                    Blood tests for antibodies to mycoplasma

                    Sputum culture

                    Urine test or a throat swab (For severe cases)

Treatment of Mycoplasma Pneumonia

The treatment therapy of Mycoplasma Pneumonia differs from other bacterial pneumonia as it does not respond the antibiotics used for treating infections with other bacteria.

It is because it lacks a peptidoglycan cell wall that makes it resistant against penicillins and other beta-lactam antibiotics.

The antibiotics used for treating infections caused by Mycoplasma Pneumoniae comprises of macrolides such as erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin; quinolones, and tetracyclines.

Tips for treatment

                    Patient is asked to drink plenty of fluids including juices, water, tea, lemonade, etc.

                    Oxygen is usually used in hospitalised patient with breathing problems

                    Use of humidified air helps in loosening the mucus

                    Patient may take aspirin, NSAIDs, for controlling fever. However, Aspirin should not be given to children.

                    Patient is advised to take plenty of rest.

·         Chest therapy is used for loosening the mucus so that it can be expelled out by deep coughing.

Complications of Mycoplasma Pneumonia

The infection with Mycoplasma Pneumonia may lead to following complicated conditions.

                    Haemolytic anaemia

                    Severe pneumonia

                    Infections in Ear