Scleroderma is a disease of connective tissue and is autoimmune. It usually features spontaneous scarring, blood vessel disease, skin thickening and varying degrees of inflammation. These illness occur when the immune system attack the tissues of the body. This condition is characterized by scar formation in the organs and skin. this leads to firmness and thickness of those areas. It is also known as systematic sclerosis when, it is widespread or diffused.

The exact cause of scleroderma is not known. Some evidences have been found by the researchers about the importance of factors. However, an important role is being played by the environment. Thus, the immune system is activated and injury is caused to the tissues. This is similar to the scar-tissue formation. A pre-disposition is caused by the genes and scleroderma is caused. It is very unusual to find auto immune diseases in the families of scleroderma patients.  The disease is very frequently found in women than in men.

The classification of scleroderma can be done on the basis of location and degree of skin involvement. Thus the classification of scleroderma is done in two main groups. These include limited and diffused. However, the terms vary. For example, according to some investigators, the two main groups include systematic and localized.

Symmetric thickening of the skin is involved in the diffuse form of scleroderma. This also involves symmetric thickening of skin of the trunk, face, and extremities. The trunk includes the back, chest, flanks and the abdomen. This progresses rapidly for hardening an early inflammatory phase. The occurrence of organ disease is found to be very serious. The organs that are affected include the bowels, lungs and esophagus.

Anemia is a medical condition which rises in human body due to the deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood and is commonly known as poor man disease. Irrespective of its anemia can cause to any human being from any class of society. There are several types of anemia which can be caused due to various reasons. But what’s important is that it should be taken seriously. The treatment of anemia is done on the basis of its factor. In medical terms anemia is not a disease but a deficiency which leads to other disorder in the body.  There are over 400 types of anemia however most of them are rare. Below are some of the common forms of anemia:

Forms of Anemia

Pernicious Anemia– Pernicious anemia causes due to the lack of Vitamin B12 in the human body. This type of anemia is quite common in age group of 50-60 years. Pernicious anemia is mostly caused due to hereditary factor but in some cases autoimmune disorders also cause Pernicious Anemia.  The symptoms of Pernicious anemia are Dyspnea, fatigue, heat palpitations and numbness or tingling sensation in the body.

Aplastic anemia- Aplastic anemiais generally caused due to the reduction in quantity of red blood cells in human blood. The major cause of Aplasitc anemia is heavy blood loss due to injury or heavy menstruation, exposure to toxins or hepatitis. The reduction in red blood cells make a human body exposed to various infections as less RBC results in decreased fighting ability of the body. The symptoms of aplastic anemia includes pale skin, increased heartbeat, multiple infections, heart failure, heavy bleeding and lethargy.

Sickle cell anemia– Sickle cell anemia is caused in a human body which is suffering from a lifelong disease. In Sickle cell anemia the red blood cells are formed in the form of sickle by human body, these red blood cells are tend to form clumps which get stuck in the blood vessels causing serious organ damage, pain and multiple infections. High fever, rapid heartbeat, fatigue, jaundice, pale skin and severe pain in the body are some of the symptoms of Sickle cell anemia.

Thalassemia – Thalassemia is a genetically inherited disorder which leads to heavy damages to red blood cells. The levels of Thalassemia totally depend upon how much haemoglobin is produced by blood cells during this time. The symptoms of Thalassemia are swelling in liver and spleen, chest pain, dizziness, dark colored urine.

Iron deficiency anemia – Iron deficiency anemia, as the name suggests, is caused due to the deficiency of iron in human body. Iron plays an important role in the production of red blood cells in human body. Any reduction in the quantity of iron in human body can affect the production of red blood cells which causes Iron deficiency anemia.  The deficiency of iron can be due to heavy blood loss, poor diet, chronic illness and gastrointestinal infections. The body suffering from Iron deficiency anemia shows symptoms such as frequent headaches, irritability, brittle hairs and nails, increased heartbeat.

Classification of Anemia


Anemia is broadly classified as:


Microcytic Anemia– Microcytic Anemia is a term used to characterize a type of anemia which is caused when the size of the red blood cells (RBC) is smaller than the usual. In Microcytic Anemia these red blood cells are even paler than usual RBCs as they cannot perform hemoglobin synthesis. Now Microcytic Anemia is a broad classification and some types of Anemia like Iron deficiency anemia, sideroblastic anemia, and anemia caused due to chronic disease, lead poisoning, pyridoxine deficiency all fall under this category.


Macrocytic Anemia- Macrocytic Anemia is again not a disease but a condition in where the red blood cells or RBCs are larger than their usual volume. In Macrocytic Anemia condition the larger red blood cells so the collective number of the cells decreases and also each cell contains insufficient amount of hemoglobin. Macrocytic Anemia can be further classified in two main parts which are known as megaloblastic anemia and non megaloblastic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is caused due to the lack of vitamin b12 or folic acid in human body. Pernicious anemia can be characterized under Macrocytic Anemia as pernicious anemia is caused because of poor capability of human body to absorb vitamin b12.


Normocytic Anemia- Normocytic Anemia is caused when size of red blood cell remains normal but the overall level of hemoglobin is increased.  Some types of Anemia caused as a result of chronic disease, hemolytic anemia and aplastic anemia all can be categorized as Normocytic Anemia. Normocytic Anemia can also be caused when a person suffers from acute blood loss.


Dimorphic – Dimorphic is a condition when a human body suffers from two or more causes of anemia simultaneously.

What is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is a type of respiratory infection associated with the inflammation and infection of the lungs. It is one of the leading causes of death in the patients across the world.

It can be caused by different types of infectious agents including microorganisms like virus, bacteria, and fungi. It can infect one or both the lungs.

When a person gets Pneumonia, there is accumulation of pus and other fluids in the lung tissues. It makes it difficult for the person to breathe and it further leads to cough and fever.

Common Symptoms

The typical symptoms of the Pneumonia comprises of difficulty in breathing, cough with sputum production, and severe chest pain while inhaling the air. The pneumonia is usually diagnosed by taking the chest x-rays and examining the sputum of the patient.

The exact treatment is recommended by the doctor after thorough diagnosis and it depends on the presence of type of pneumonia in the patient being treated.

Severity of Disease

Pneumonia is the killer disease that accounts for an estimated 18% of all deaths of children (less than five years old). The brutality of this killer disease is evident from the fact that it causes more number of deaths than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined.

Pneumonia can occur to anyone; however its incidence is more prominent in children, older adults and patients suffering from chronic illnesses. It is highly prevalent in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian region.

The severity of Pneumonia depends on various factors such as type of Pneumonia, extent of pneumonia and overall health of the patient.

For example, a healthy and young person is easy to treat while an old person with other complications is really hard to be treated successfully. Overall, there are over fifty types of pneumonia.

Classification of Pneumonia

There are various ways of classifying Pneumonia and this classification assists in better identification and management of the Pneumonia. The treatment for different types of Pneumonia differs from each other.

On the basis of where or how it was acquired





                    Ventilator-associated pneumonia

On the basis of area of lung affected

                    Lobar pneumonia

                    Bronchial pneumonia

                    Acute interstitial pneumonia

On the basis of causative organism






On the basis of signs and symptoms (in children)



                    Very severe

Prevention and GAAP

As the saying goes, “Prevention is better than cure”; it holds true in case of Pneumonia as well and therefore it is important to understand the underlying causes, symptoms and preventive measures of Pneumonia.

There are vaccines available today that can prevent the occurrence of pneumonia. One can keep check on pneumonia by immunization, adequate nutrition and taking care of various environmental factors.

WHO and UNICEF had launched the action plan for the prevention and control of pneumonia on a global scale in 2009. It is called as GAAP and it involves taking several measures in order to protect, prevent, and treat pneumonia in children across the world.