Nodules are small lumps or growths that occur in the thyroid gland. It is primarily located at the frontal part of the neck just below the Adam’s apple. There are numerous causes for existence of thyroid nodules. These nodules or growths are often benign or non-cancerous and tend to multiply at a fast speed. Most nodules form of thyroid cells while few are certain cysts or sacks. You might also be concerned about one particular nodule which might actually be a string of nodules. These nodules are often more common in women than men.

The chances of nodules formation increases with age of the person. A thyroid might get cancerous in case there is a hard nodule, and if the nodule gets attached to the surrounding organs. These nodules also occur if there has been a family history of thyroid nodules. In cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia too the patient faces nodules.

Sometimes family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma will also lead to thyroid issues. The person will then have a strong vocal cord paralysis due to which they would find difficulty in talking and breathing. If she is younger than 20 yrs of age and older than 70 yrs of age they would suffer from thyroid nodules. Also prolonged exposure to radiation will always be a problem.

Thyroid nodules also occur due to iodine deficiency and Hashimoto’s disease. In fact large nodules do put immense pressure in and around the neck.

Some of the problems that might be noticed include difficulty in breathing, hoarseness or pain in the neck, difficulty swallowing, pain in the neck, clammy skin, increased appetite, nervousness, restlessness, weight loss, skin flushing, skin blushing etc.

Patients suffering from hypothyroidism face symptoms like fatigue, dry skin, facial swelling, hair loss, intolerance to cold, excessive weight imbalance. Some of these may differ depending on the age and medical history of the patient. Your doctor will certainly recommend you a surgery in case it is cancerous; it needs a replacement of thyroid gland, or medications to control an overactive thyroid gland.

There are various reasons for occurrence of thyroids. This kind of cancer is most prevalent inUK. Nearly 1000 cases of thyroid cancers get detected every year. This risk can occur at any age but mostly ends post 75 years of age for men and 55 for women. The certain risk factors for thyroid cancer include exposure to sun rays and ultraviolet rays since growing years. There is always an inherent gene or bowel condition namely FAP associated with the patient. Also, very low levels of iodine.

The other reason for thyroid cancer is that the cells often undergo certain mutations. This further allows the cells to spread rapidly causing nodules. The cells do not die and keep accumulating, finally leading to formation of a tumor. The most abnormal cells often spread throughout the tissue.

There are various types of thyroid cancer:

  • Firstly, papillary thyroid cancer is the most common which makes up to nearly 80% of most cancer diseases.
  • Secondly follicular thyroid cancer leads to hurthle cell cancer.
  • The third type of cancer is called Medullary Thyroid cancer which is also associated with genetic syndromes and tumors present in pituitary glands.
  • The fourth type of cancer is called anaplastic cancer that us very tough to crack and connect.

The tumors are aggressive in nature and tend to get clustered. Hence most often doctors and surgeons have great difficulty in predicting relief and cure. Lastly there is Thyroid lymphoma which immediately develops in the immune process and tends to rotate and run throughout the body. The actual cause of thyroid cancer has still not be reviewed and found. You are advised to constantly meet your doctor or surgeon if you notice any kind of symptoms. Also research and read clearly a lot on all these problems and understand thyroid problems deeply. You will also need to ensure that you do not get exposed to radiation any further.

The best method will be to go for regular check-ups which will enable you to make wise decisions on health. In case you are asked to opt for surgery, do feel to go ahead with the same. You can always take second opinions however; all these surgeries will tend to put some pressure on your physical health. Hence, take help whenever needed and inform your relatives and family if you undergo any unusual symptoms.

Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine. The victim has a strong, sudden need to urinate but is unable to hold urine. Leaks can occur when you sneeze, laugh, make any physical effort or exercise. It is a hygiene problem, social and psychological, as it influences the daily activities of patients and reduces their quality of life. Incontinence is not a disease itself, but the consequence of an alteration in the bladder filling phase which occurs in many diseases.


It can occur at any age in both the sexes. However, it is more common in women than in men. Incontinence occurs when the pressure inside the bladder exceeds the pressure in the urethra.

This condition may be due to over activity of urinary muscles called detrusor, in some cases, it is motivated by a neurological problem, for an alteration of the external sphincter and pelvic floor muscles, by the failure of internal sphincter injury due to inappropriate relaxation or by neuronal damage.

Types of Urinary Incontinence

Stress incontinence: urine loss occurs during any movement or activity. Activities like laughing, sneezing, playing sports, lifting heavy objects or merely standing up or bending can cause urine leakage ranging from a few drops to a trickle. It affects more than one million women.

Urge incontinence:  it consists of the involuntary loss of urine associated with a strong, sudden need to urinate. The origin of this incontinence is in the detrusor muscles.

Sensitive: it is caused by increased sensory impulses from receptors voltage / pressure found in the walls of the bladder.

Overflow incontinence: urine loss occurs because the bladder is distended by obstruction and fails to empty itself.


Dietary hygienic measures: patients must control fluids intake to avoid excessive formation of urine. Most food items that are known to produce urine life milk, fruits etc. should be taken in lesser quantity.

Drug therapy: objective of drug treatment is to ensure that the bladder is able to relax without contracting during filling and that the urethra remains closed during filling. The most commonly used drugs are anticholinergic substances that decrease detrusor contractility and increase the tolerance of bladder.

Surgery: There are different surgical solutions according to the type of incontinence and the characteristics of the bladder and urethra.

Bladder training: patients regain bladder control by learning to resist the urge to urinate and thus contributing to increase bladder capacity. This is achieved through exercises that develop the pelvic floor muscles.

The word ‘Impotence’ describes a condition in men in which, they are continuously unable to achieve an erection, necessary to enjoy a satisfying sexual intercourse.

In some cases, even if the person can achieve an erection, he is unable to maintain it for a long duration of time. This problem is not similar to / associated with other problems in the sexual domain such as no sexual desire, ejaculation disorders (delayed ejaculation, premature or early ejaculation and no ejaculation) or disorders related to orgasm.

Impotence is medically known as erectile dysfunction; the men who suffer from this disease are often unable to sexually satisfy their partners and hence, they face a lot of mental trauma and find it difficult to manage their romantic relationships.

Causes of Impotency

Psychological causes: even though the penis does not have any physical alteration, psychological problems like anxiety (which is often due to inability to achieve sexual satisfaction), depression, lack of adequate sleep and even excessive stress can affect one’s sexual performance. Fatigue, lack of adequate exercise, poor or no appetite, sleep or job failure can also lead to unusual sexual reflexes.

Vascular causes: they are very common; sometimes, the penis cannot collect the blood needed for an erection, this can happen due to lack of blood in the man’s body. Smoking, having high blood pressure, diabetes, heart diseases and changes in blood cholesterol levels can lead to different vascular disorders that can hinder a man’s erection.

Neurological causes: in these cases there is an interruption in the transfer of messages from the brain to the penis because there is an injury to the nerves involved. This occurs with lesions of the spinal cord, multiple sclerosis or surgery in the pelvis region.

Hormonal causes: in rare conditions, lack of male sex hormones can cause impotency.

Drug Causes: The side effects of several medications can diminish the ability to have an erection. Among them are drugs to treat hypertension, heart disease and psychiatric disorders.

Treatment of Impotency

Many doctors suggest that the choice of treatments for impotency or erectile dysfunction, which is to be followed, should be the least to most invasive. The first step is to take drugs that can help in attaining or retaining an erection. The second step is to opt for psychotherapy and behavior modification, then the next step is to use vacuum devices and finally, if all other steps fail, one can opt for surgery.

Hydronephrosis is a condition in which the kidney is dilated and distended; it is caused by the pressure created in the kidney by the urine, when the urine is blocked from being discharged or the flow of urine is blocked.

In normal condition, the urine flows out of the kidney at a relatively low pressure and if this flow of urine is obstructed, then the urine goes back and accumulates in certain small tubes, located inside the kidney (renal pelvis area). This collected urine then exerts pressure on the kidney, causing it to enlarge or expand. The pressure exerted by the urine can be fatal and damage the kidney and ultimately stopping it from functioning properly.

Causes of Hydronephrosis

It can be caused by various factors but most often it is the result of a blockage or obstruction which can be found in the connection between the renal pelvis and the ureter. The different causes of such obstruction include:

Abnormal Structure: some people are born with abnormal structure of the kidney, for example, in some people, the renal pelvis is a little higher than usual or the muscles of the ureter are not completely developed. In such situation, the flow is urine is obstructed and it can lead to the condition of Hydronephrosis.

Injury: sometimes, severe injury can cause the ureter or the renal pelvis to shift from their actual positions. In such situations, the flow of urine will be obstructed.

Vein or Tumor: if a tumor is formed in the passage of the urine or, if a vein is located in such a way that it blocks the urine passage, then the flow of urine will be obstructed, causing backward pressure on the kidney.

Pregnancy: Hydronephrosis can occur in both the kidneys of a woman during pregnancy. This is often a temporary condition which ends with childbirth (end of pregnancy)

Treatment of Hydronephrosis

The treatment of Hydronephrosis often revolves around curing the cause of the obstruction in the urinary passage. Also, the excess urine which is accumulated in the kidney is immediately drained out so that it cannot cause any damage to the kidney. It is often done by inserting a needle through the patient’s skin.  In most cases drugs are used to treat the infection caused by the urine obstruction; drugs can also be used to remove the obstruction but in some cases only a surgical operation can help in removing it.

Our body consists of a set of cells visible only through a microscope.  These cells divide periodically and regularly to replace old or dead ones, and maintain the integrity and proper functioning of various organs.

The process of cell division is regulated by a series of control mechanisms that tell the cell when to start to divide and when to remain static. When these control mechanisms are altered in a cell, it and its descendants initiate an uncontrolled division, which eventually will lead to a tumor or nodule.

When cells that constitute the tumor do not have the ability to invade and destroy other organs, they are called benign tumors. But when these cells grow uncontrollably besides suffering new changes and acquire the ability to invade surrounding tissues and organs (infiltration), and to move and grow in other parts of the body (metastasis), they are termed as malignant tumor or cancer.

There are many types of cancer namely skin cancer, breast cancer, blood cancer or leukemia etc.  The evolution of each type of cancer is subject to many factors that will interact with each other. These factors vary depending on both the tumor and the patient.

Possible Causes

The development of certain diseases such as obesity, heart disease and cancer depend greatly on the lifestyle of the individual. Smoking increases the chances of developing lung or mouth cancer.

Excessive alcohol consumption also increases the probability of occurrence of liver and stomach cancer.

75-80% of the time, cancer is caused due to the action of external agents acting on the body, causing alterations in the cells. In the other 20-25% of cases, the exact mechanisms by which cancer develops and produces are not known. It is thought to be due to spontaneous mutations of the genes or by the action of some external factor that has not yet been identified.


Scientific and technological advances of recent years have provided new insights into the emergence, development and growth of cancer. These advances, in practice, resulted in improved cancer treatments and reduced side effects from them. For example, surgery performed today can treat malignant tumors effectively without causing harm to the body organs of the patient.

The main forms of treatment are surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The effectiveness of these treatments has not been proven scientifically. At present, there are no drugs that can cure cancer or even prevent the formation of cancerous cells in the body.

The presence of blood in the urine or hematuria is a condition in which, the urine appears red because of the presence red corpuscles (red blood cells) in the urine. The presence of blood in the urine can be caused by problems in the kidney or diseases of the urinary tract (ureteres, urinary bladder, uretra). In the presence of blood in urine (pink color) must carry out a consultation with a urologist to rule out kidney tumors, bladder or prostate.

Why blood may appear in urine?

This may be due to multiple benign and malignant diseases. The most important causes of hematuria are:

  • Bladder Tumors
  • Ureteral or kidney stones
  • Kidney tumors
  • Prostate Diseases
  • Idiopathic (no cause is found)

How serious is hematuria?

It is serious but, it depends on the disease that produces it. Thus, it is important that a person immediately seeks medical advice when blood appears in the urine, so that its root cause can be determined. The treatment of hematuria is purely dependant on diagnosis of its cause.

What should I do if my urine is pink?

You should see an urologist as he or she will tell you the appropriate tests to arrive at an accurate diagnosis and will treat the disease that causes the hematuria.

What tests will be conducted?

Urology institutes are experts in the diagnosis and treatment of hematuria. Initially they will give you a good history and physical examination. Depending on the findings of the tests, they will then prescribe a treatment which will help in curing the root cause of the disease.

In most cases make plain radiography, ultrasound and a blood and urine tests are enough to determine the causes of hematuria, but in certain cases, additional tests may be required.

How is hematuria treated?

Treatment depends on the cause or the disease that causes hematuria. If the tests indicate the presence of a tumor in the bladder, doctors must perform a procedure to remove the tumor through the passage of urine. It is called transurethral resection (TUR) and is performed under regional anesthesia and involves inserting a small device through the urethra to remove the tumor without open surgery.

If they discover a tumor in the kidney, the treatment option will be surgery. If the tumor is small they can remove the tumor and preserve the kidney. If your urine is pink, you should immediately consult an expert urologist.

Prostate cancer was predominantly, thought to be a disease caused by internal factors like genetics, diet and physical factors. However, recent studies have suggested that there are many other factors which are responsible for prostate cancer.

One of the most unlikely causes is viral infection. A virus has been found by some researchers in some patients suffering from prostate cancer. This is a cause of concern, as prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer, after skin cancer. This virus is closely related to one which was found in mice.

This cancer virus found in mice has also been detected in many humans suffering from this disease. It has been suggested that this virus plays a crucial role in the initial stages of this disease and also, plays a part in developing the disease into its more deadly forms. This is still being researched and a successful conclusion of this experiment will enable the doctors to differentiate between fast growing tumors which require immediate treatment and slow growing ones that can be left alone for a long time.

It is known that many types of cancers in human beings are caused by virus. Liver cancer can be caused by hepatitis viruses. The virus which is found in cancerous prostate gland cells are known as XMRV or xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. It is more probable for the virus to be present in the tumors which are more aggressive and have a higher rating of malignancy on the Gleason scale. If proper research is conducted, vaccines, tests and therapies would be developed as soon as possible and millions of men would be spared the agony of suffering this killer disease.

The virus XMRV was present in approximately twenty seven per cent of the cancer cells that were examined. No definite conclusion has been reached yet and the topic is still under research.

Researchers are frantically working day and night to solve this puzzle because; this virus was previously undiscovered in the human body. A lot of research and serious hard work is still required to reach a conclusion about this disease. It has been proved that the XMRV virus is not enhanced by genetic mutation. It has also been suggested that this virus gets conducted from one person to another and spreads quite fast.

Right now, many scientists across the world are working day and night to find out the exact causes that he helps this virus spread from person to person.

Even though prostate cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer after skin cancer, a lot of research is still required to know about this disease thoroughly. Many of the causes of this type of cancer are yet to be discovered. However, a tentative link has been found which is due to medication exposure. There are both positive and negative effects, depending on the type of medicine which the patient is being exposed to. Some links have been suggested between medicines and prostate cancer.

The use of cholesterol lowering medicines, which are known as statins, also help in reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer. If there is an inflammation or infection in the prostate gland, the probability of contracting this disease increases. Alternatively, a different research shows that infection causes higher blood flow to the affected area and helps in preventing this disease. Sexually transmitted diseases, especially, increase the risk. But, treatment can contain it.

It has also been noticed that high levels of testosterone in the blood and obesity can also cause prostate cancer. There is also a relation between prostate cancer and vasectomy but this is still under research and no definite conclusion has been reached yet. It has been noticed that most prescribed medicines have no relation whatsoever with this disease.

One research showed that soldiers in the U.S. army, who had any amount of exposure to the Agent Orange, were forty eight per cent more prone to recurrence of prostate cancer after surgery. This disease is mostly due to genetic disorders, dietary habits and occupation related hazards.

Doctors have become very particular about the medicines which they prescribe and this has, significantly, reduced ill effects and side effects of medicines. Even the companies which manufacture these medicines have become very particular in refraining from using harmful components with side effects. The governments all over the world have become very strict about the composition of medicines. This has resulted in reduced side effects and the drawbacks clearly being mentioned on the medicine strip, itself. Now, the drugs are tested again and again before released for public consumption.

Doctors avoid medicines which have bad side effects and it has been found that medicines generally, have a positive result in this case. Thus, it can be concluded that medication exposure is not a very important factor in contracting prostate cancer but, it definitely plays a very important role in treating this ailment.

There is still a lot of research happening on the dietary causes of prostate cancer. A definite result has not been medically declared yet but there are several hypotheses. This disease if most common among American men and many of them fall prey to this every year. Barring skin cancer, this is the most common type of cancer. Scientists have not yet determined the cause of the disease for sure, but they suspect that obesity and diet are somehow responsible. A few theories have been offered but most of them have yet to be given any official recognition.

It has been noticed that men who have a Western diet of high fat content have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. Diets consisting of high fats, change the amount of hormone secretions in the body and causes imbalances. In men, prostate gland in located below the urinary bladder. Semen is produced here and this in turn, mixes with sperm cells. These cancer cells can be found in 20% of men over 45 years of age. However, men of Latin and Asian origin are less susceptible to this disease.

A man can significantly raise his risk of developing this disease by too much intake of food, especially those which contain fat and saturated fat. They also put themselves at risk by not eating enough vitamin D, Vitamin E, selenium and phytoestrogens.

Phytoestrogens are found in almost all kinds of beans, most nuts, seeds and whole grains. Sunlight is the source of vitamin D and deficiency of this vitamin, damages the person’s immunity with which he can kill all sorts of germs and also destroy all kind of cancer cells. Selenium and vitamin E are anti-oxidants and these are removed when grain is ground into different kinds of flours. If a man’s diet consists mostly of pasta or bakery products, he will be lacking in these nutrients. The best way to get enough of these items into the body is to eat lots of beans, seeds and whole grains.

To reduce the risk of prostate cancer, animal products like meat, milk, cheese, eggs, butter, cream and all kinds of fats should be avoided. All the research results have these products in common. Some results even advise that vegetable oil should be avoided too. Those people who eat more of grains and vegetables or are completely vegetarian, hardly have any risk of developing cancer of the prostate gland.