There are various drugs that are used for treatment of prostate cancer. As this disease invariably crops up at an older age, doctors think that the use of some effective drugs would save the patient from unnecessary surgery.
Bisphosphonate is the most common drug used to eliminate almost all kinds of cancer. Several clinical trials have proved that ‘Bisphosphonates’ have clinical value in the treatment and management of skeletal metastases derived from advanced prostate cancer. Researchers have studied the effects of Bisphosphonate treatment on the growth of prostate cancer cells in three line stages. Treatment of PC3, DU145 and LNCap cells with ‘pamidronate’ or zoledronate significantly reduce the growth of all three cell lines.
Using flow cytometry, ‘pamidronate’ treatment induces significant amount of cell deaths while ‘zoledronate’ in the dosage of 100µm obstructs the growth of cancer cells in the presence of fetal bovine serum. Though both the drugs reduce cancer cell growth in the presence serum, zoledronate is more potent. A dosage as low as 25µm ‘zoledronate’ only needs be administered in the presence of 5% bovine serum. Therefore the use of these two drugs in managing skeletal metastases as helps in direct inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth in the bone microenvironment.
Casodex™ monotherapy is next alternative drug that is used for confirmed metastatic (M?) and locally advanced prostate cancer. A dosage of 150mg has to be taken daily for a period of 100 weeks. However it has to be used in combination with castration to make it more effective.
Use of ‘Casodex’ helps improve quality of life by retaining sexual interest in the patient. It is an option for patients with M? prostate cancer for whom surgical or medical castration is not indicated or acceptable.
Taxol anti cancer drug is used for the treatment of bcl-2 prostate cancer. Treatment of prostate cancer cell lines expressing bcl-2 with ‘Taxol’ induces bcl-2 ‘phosphorylation’ and programmed cell death. The drug however does not work on bcl-2 negative prostate cancer cells. It does not induce apoptosis. The bcl-2 phosphorylation inhibits its binding to ‘bax’.
A number of cytotoxic agents and drugs are used for chemotherapy of prostate cancer, but these drugs and agents have proved to be more harmful than effective; calling for new approaches.