Nongonococcal bacterial arthritis is an acute or a subacute illness that has significant mortality and morbidity. Fungi, mycobacteria and bacteria are the main causes of the disease. This condition can affect both individuals with predisposing conditions as well as healthy individuals. Nongonococcal bacterial arthritis is a monoarticular disease. Multiple joints are affected by it in more than 10 percent of patients. If proper treatment is not taken, it can lead to joint destruction.
In this kind of arthritis the joints are inflamed and this leads to bacterial infection. There are various symptoms of this condition. The development of this kind of arthritis takes place when bacteria spread through the bloodstream to joints. The occurrence may also be seen when joints are directly infected with bacteria due to any surgery or any injury. This infection is most commonly found in the areas of the hip and knee. In most of the cases of this arthritis, the organisms such as streptococcus and staphylococcus are the main causes.
The risks for nongonococcal bacterial arthritis are increased due to:
- Bacterial infection in other parts of the body
- Artificial joint implants
- Diseases or chronic illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell disease and diabetes
- Medications due to which immune system is suppressed
- Recent joint trauma
- Intravenous or injection drug use
- Other surgery or recent joint arthroscopy
This kind of arthritis is found in any of the age groups. The occurrence is seen in children mainly in those who are younger than 3 years. In infants, the most frequent site of infection is the hip. Nongonococcal bacterial infection is very uncommon between 3 years of age and adolescence. Children with nongonococcal bacterial arthritis are very likely to be infected with the B group of streptococcus or haemophilus influenza than the adults.