Diagnostic Criteria For Various Depression Types

How it is determined that patients have a particular type of depression? The classification of depression is done on the basis of DSM guidelines issued by American Psychiatric Association.

DSM is an abbreviated form of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It is used by psychiatrists for diagnosing the mental conditions. The DSM guidelines are also used by insurance companies for providing reimbursement for treatment.

Diagnostic criteria for Major Depression

For major depression, a patient should satisfy following two conditions.

  • Patient must meet five or more of the following symptoms for more than two weeks period
  • Symptom must be either depressed mood or a lack of interest

Symptoms for Major Depression

  • Depressed mood during entire length of day almost daily
  • Feeling of sadness, or tearful in children and adolescents
  • Depressed mood appear as a sign of constant irritability
  • Diminished interest in doing all activities throughout the day almost daily
  • Considerable weight loss when not dieting or even weight gain
  • Increase/Decrease in appetite daily
  • Sleep disturbances like Insomnia/increased sleeping hours daily
  • Restlessness or slowed behaviour
  • Lack of energy or fatigue almost daily
  • Feelings of worthlessness/excessive guilt almost daily
  • Difficulty in making decisions
  • Difficulty in concentrating
  • Suicidal thoughts almost daily

Moreover, there are certain features that are peculiar to major depressions.

  • Symptoms do not highlight mixed episode such as simultaneous mania and depression as in bipolar disorder.
  • Severity of symptoms interferes with normal activities at school, work, or social activities.
  • Symptoms do not result due to direct consequences of taking medication, drug abuse or any associated medical condition like hypothyroidism.
  • Symptoms do not result due to any temporary life event such as sadness after the death of a loved one.

Diagnostic Criteria of Bipolar Disorder

There are basically two subtypes of bipolar disorder including Bipolar I disorder and Bipolar II disorder.

Bipolar I disorder: Minimum one manic episode + with or without major depressive episodes

Bipolar II disorder: Minimum one episode of major depression + at least one hypomanic episode

Diagnostic Criteria of Dysthymia

The diagnostic criteria of Dysthymia involve the following.

  • Symptoms must have lasted for a longer period of time (two years of more)
  • Symptoms must be less severe than symptoms of major depression
  • Symptoms should not result due to substance abuse or any medical condition
  • Symptoms should cause clinically significant distress
  • Symptoms should cause impairment in social and occupational areas of your life

Diagnostic Criteria of Postpartum depression

It is a common type of depression that starts four to eight weeks after delivery and may continue for months.

  • Depressed mood during entire length of day almost daily
  • Feeling of sadness, or tearful in children and adolescents
  • Depressed mood appear as a sign of constant irritability
  • Diminished interest in doing all activities throughout the day almost daily
  • Considerable weight loss when not dieting or even weight gain
  • Increase/Decrease in appetite daily
  • Sleep disturbances like Insomnia/increased sleeping hours daily
  • Restlessness or slowed behaviour
  • Lack of energy or fatigue almost daily
  • Suicidal thoughts