Nodules are small lumps or growths that occur in the thyroid gland. It is primarily located at the frontal part of the neck just below the Adam’s apple. There are numerous causes for existence of thyroid nodules. These nodules or growths are often benign or non-cancerous and tend to multiply at a fast speed. Most nodules form of thyroid cells while few are certain cysts or sacks. You might also be concerned about one particular nodule which might actually be a string of nodules. These nodules are often more common in women than men.

The chances of nodules formation increases with age of the person. A thyroid might get cancerous in case there is a hard nodule, and if the nodule gets attached to the surrounding organs. These nodules also occur if there has been a family history of thyroid nodules. In cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia too the patient faces nodules.

Sometimes family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma will also lead to thyroid issues. The person will then have a strong vocal cord paralysis due to which they would find difficulty in talking and breathing. If she is younger than 20 yrs of age and older than 70 yrs of age they would suffer from thyroid nodules. Also prolonged exposure to radiation will always be a problem.

Thyroid nodules also occur due to iodine deficiency and Hashimoto’s disease. In fact large nodules do put immense pressure in and around the neck.

Some of the problems that might be noticed include difficulty in breathing, hoarseness or pain in the neck, difficulty swallowing, pain in the neck, clammy skin, increased appetite, nervousness, restlessness, weight loss, skin flushing, skin blushing etc.

Patients suffering from hypothyroidism face symptoms like fatigue, dry skin, facial swelling, hair loss, intolerance to cold, excessive weight imbalance. Some of these may differ depending on the age and medical history of the patient. Your doctor will certainly recommend you a surgery in case it is cancerous; it needs a replacement of thyroid gland, or medications to control an overactive thyroid gland.

There are various reasons for occurrence of thyroids. This kind of cancer is most prevalent inUK. Nearly 1000 cases of thyroid cancers get detected every year. This risk can occur at any age but mostly ends post 75 years of age for men and 55 for women. The certain risk factors for thyroid cancer include exposure to sun rays and ultraviolet rays since growing years. There is always an inherent gene or bowel condition namely FAP associated with the patient. Also, very low levels of iodine.

The other reason for thyroid cancer is that the cells often undergo certain mutations. This further allows the cells to spread rapidly causing nodules. The cells do not die and keep accumulating, finally leading to formation of a tumor. The most abnormal cells often spread throughout the tissue.

There are various types of thyroid cancer:

  • Firstly, papillary thyroid cancer is the most common which makes up to nearly 80% of most cancer diseases.
  • Secondly follicular thyroid cancer leads to hurthle cell cancer.
  • The third type of cancer is called Medullary Thyroid cancer which is also associated with genetic syndromes and tumors present in pituitary glands.
  • The fourth type of cancer is called anaplastic cancer that us very tough to crack and connect.

The tumors are aggressive in nature and tend to get clustered. Hence most often doctors and surgeons have great difficulty in predicting relief and cure. Lastly there is Thyroid lymphoma which immediately develops in the immune process and tends to rotate and run throughout the body. The actual cause of thyroid cancer has still not be reviewed and found. You are advised to constantly meet your doctor or surgeon if you notice any kind of symptoms. Also research and read clearly a lot on all these problems and understand thyroid problems deeply. You will also need to ensure that you do not get exposed to radiation any further.

The best method will be to go for regular check-ups which will enable you to make wise decisions on health. In case you are asked to opt for surgery, do feel to go ahead with the same. You can always take second opinions however; all these surgeries will tend to put some pressure on your physical health. Hence, take help whenever needed and inform your relatives and family if you undergo any unusual symptoms.

Prostate cancer was predominantly, thought to be a disease caused by internal factors like genetics, diet and physical factors. However, recent studies have suggested that there are many other factors which are responsible for prostate cancer.

One of the most unlikely causes is viral infection. A virus has been found by some researchers in some patients suffering from prostate cancer. This is a cause of concern, as prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer, after skin cancer. This virus is closely related to one which was found in mice.

This cancer virus found in mice has also been detected in many humans suffering from this disease. It has been suggested that this virus plays a crucial role in the initial stages of this disease and also, plays a part in developing the disease into its more deadly forms. This is still being researched and a successful conclusion of this experiment will enable the doctors to differentiate between fast growing tumors which require immediate treatment and slow growing ones that can be left alone for a long time.

It is known that many types of cancers in human beings are caused by virus. Liver cancer can be caused by hepatitis viruses. The virus which is found in cancerous prostate gland cells are known as XMRV or xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. It is more probable for the virus to be present in the tumors which are more aggressive and have a higher rating of malignancy on the Gleason scale. If proper research is conducted, vaccines, tests and therapies would be developed as soon as possible and millions of men would be spared the agony of suffering this killer disease.

The virus XMRV was present in approximately twenty seven per cent of the cancer cells that were examined. No definite conclusion has been reached yet and the topic is still under research.

Researchers are frantically working day and night to solve this puzzle because; this virus was previously undiscovered in the human body. A lot of research and serious hard work is still required to reach a conclusion about this disease. It has been proved that the XMRV virus is not enhanced by genetic mutation. It has also been suggested that this virus gets conducted from one person to another and spreads quite fast.

Right now, many scientists across the world are working day and night to find out the exact causes that he helps this virus spread from person to person.

Even though prostate cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer after skin cancer, a lot of research is still required to know about this disease thoroughly. Many of the causes of this type of cancer are yet to be discovered. However, a tentative link has been found which is due to medication exposure. There are both positive and negative effects, depending on the type of medicine which the patient is being exposed to. Some links have been suggested between medicines and prostate cancer.

The use of cholesterol lowering medicines, which are known as statins, also help in reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer. If there is an inflammation or infection in the prostate gland, the probability of contracting this disease increases. Alternatively, a different research shows that infection causes higher blood flow to the affected area and helps in preventing this disease. Sexually transmitted diseases, especially, increase the risk. But, treatment can contain it.

It has also been noticed that high levels of testosterone in the blood and obesity can also cause prostate cancer. There is also a relation between prostate cancer and vasectomy but this is still under research and no definite conclusion has been reached yet. It has been noticed that most prescribed medicines have no relation whatsoever with this disease.

One research showed that soldiers in the U.S. army, who had any amount of exposure to the Agent Orange, were forty eight per cent more prone to recurrence of prostate cancer after surgery. This disease is mostly due to genetic disorders, dietary habits and occupation related hazards.

Doctors have become very particular about the medicines which they prescribe and this has, significantly, reduced ill effects and side effects of medicines. Even the companies which manufacture these medicines have become very particular in refraining from using harmful components with side effects. The governments all over the world have become very strict about the composition of medicines. This has resulted in reduced side effects and the drawbacks clearly being mentioned on the medicine strip, itself. Now, the drugs are tested again and again before released for public consumption.

Doctors avoid medicines which have bad side effects and it has been found that medicines generally, have a positive result in this case. Thus, it can be concluded that medication exposure is not a very important factor in contracting prostate cancer but, it definitely plays a very important role in treating this ailment.

There is still a lot of research happening on the dietary causes of prostate cancer. A definite result has not been medically declared yet but there are several hypotheses. This disease if most common among American men and many of them fall prey to this every year. Barring skin cancer, this is the most common type of cancer. Scientists have not yet determined the cause of the disease for sure, but they suspect that obesity and diet are somehow responsible. A few theories have been offered but most of them have yet to be given any official recognition.

It has been noticed that men who have a Western diet of high fat content have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer. Diets consisting of high fats, change the amount of hormone secretions in the body and causes imbalances. In men, prostate gland in located below the urinary bladder. Semen is produced here and this in turn, mixes with sperm cells. These cancer cells can be found in 20% of men over 45 years of age. However, men of Latin and Asian origin are less susceptible to this disease.

A man can significantly raise his risk of developing this disease by too much intake of food, especially those which contain fat and saturated fat. They also put themselves at risk by not eating enough vitamin D, Vitamin E, selenium and phytoestrogens.

Phytoestrogens are found in almost all kinds of beans, most nuts, seeds and whole grains. Sunlight is the source of vitamin D and deficiency of this vitamin, damages the person’s immunity with which he can kill all sorts of germs and also destroy all kind of cancer cells. Selenium and vitamin E are anti-oxidants and these are removed when grain is ground into different kinds of flours. If a man’s diet consists mostly of pasta or bakery products, he will be lacking in these nutrients. The best way to get enough of these items into the body is to eat lots of beans, seeds and whole grains.

To reduce the risk of prostate cancer, animal products like meat, milk, cheese, eggs, butter, cream and all kinds of fats should be avoided. All the research results have these products in common. Some results even advise that vegetable oil should be avoided too. Those people who eat more of grains and vegetables or are completely vegetarian, hardly have any risk of developing cancer of the prostate gland.

Within every cell in the human body is DNA which carries information. It has been estimated by researchers that each single cell contains thirty thousand different types of genes.

Genes are found in chromosomes of which, there are 23 pairs in every cell. One chromosome is inherited from the father and the other from the mother and together, they make a pair. Genes control everything in the body like how fast it grows, the rate at which the cells divide, for how long the cell will live etc. For controlling these functions, specific tasks have to be performed and there are instructions and codes in all the genes.

When the genes get mutated or changed, a different, abnormal protein or sometimes, no protein is created at all. This sends a different signal to the cell than a normal protein and the cells start to multiply at an uncontrollable rate and start getting cancerous. One can either inherit cancerous cells from their parents or can acquire mutation in a single cell in their lifetime.

In case of acquired mutation, all the calls which are born from that mutated cell become cancerous and this is called somatic mutation. Almost seventy five per cent of prostate cancers are sporadic. This means that after a person is born, any cell is accidentally damaged. Familial cancer is the trait of cancerous cells being handed down from generation to generation and makes up only about twenty per cent of the cases. This happens for a number of reasons like shared genes, environmental factors and lifestyle factors. Hereditary prostate cancer is very rare, only about five per cent of all the cases and are passed down from generation to generation.

Each cell generally, has 2 copies of each gene. On is inherited from the father and the other, from the mother. The strange thing about hereditary mutation is that if one copy is affected of the gene, the chance of getting the disease increases. This means that the offspring of parents, one of whom have the mutated gene, runs a fifty per cent chance of getting prostate cancer. Their siblings also, run the same risk.

A man who has an average risk of getting prostate cancer has approximately fifteen per cent chance of getting it by the time he is 80 years old. African-American men have a higher risk of getting affected than white men. The reason for this is still being researched.

Yeast infection or Candidiasis, is a fungal infection caused by any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most common. Candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.

Candidiasis encompasses infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases.

The severe and life threatening diseases are also referred to as candidemia and are usually found in persons who have low immunity such as the patients suffering from:

  • Cancer
  • Transplant
  • AIDS patients
  • Non-trauma emergency surgery patients

Superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes by Candida causing local inflammation and discomfort are very common in human being.

However a most common yeast infection is vaginal yeast infections. It occur when yeast enters into the vaginal area and in some cases when there is an increase in the quantity of yeast already present in the vagina relative to the quantity of normal bacteria. Though it can also happens in conditions when the normal, protective bacteria are eradicated by antibiotics. Normally taken to treat a urinary tract, respiratory, or other types of infection or by immunosuppressive drugs, the yeast can multiply, invade tissues, and cause irritation of the lining of the vagina (vaginitis).

Causes Vaginal yeast infections

  • Injury to the inner vagina, such as after chemotherapy
  • Suppressed immune systems
  • Diabetes mellitus, pregnancy
  • Taking oral contraceptives
  • Use of douches or perfumed vaginal hygiene sprays

A vaginal yeast infection is not considered to be a sexually transmitted infection (STD), since Candida may be present in the normal vagina, and the condition does occur in celibate women. However, it is possible for men to develop symptoms of skin irritation of the penis from a yeast infection after sexual intercourse with an infected partner.


In clinical settings, candidiasis or yeast infection is commonly treated with antimycotics—the antifungal drugs commonly used to treat candidiasis are topical clotrimazole, topical nystatin, fluconazole, and topical ketoconazole.

Some alternative medicine proponents postulate a widespread occurrence of systemic candidiasis. The view was most widely promoted in a book published by Dr. William Crook, which hypothesized that a variety of common symptoms could be caused by subclinical infections of Candida albicans such as:

  • Fatigue
  • PMS
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Asthma
  • Psoriasis
  • Digestive and urinary problems
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Muscle pain

In the book Crook has suggested a variety of remedies to treat these symptoms, ranging from dietary modification, prescription antifungal, to colonic irrigation. With the exception of the few dietary studies in the urinary tract infection section, conventional medicine has not used most of these alternatives, since there is limited scientific evidence to prove either their effectiveness, or that subclinical systemic candidacies is a viable diagnosis.

Jock itch, also known as tinea cruris is an infection of the groin area and it a caused by a type of fungus, Tinia. Medically it is a dermatophyte fungal infection of the groin region in either sex, though it is more often seen in males.

Jock itch occurs when a particular type of fungus grows and spreads in the groin area.

This problem is common in adult men and adolescent boys. Sometimes Jock itch can be accompanied with athlete’s foot and ringworm. The fungus causing jock itch survives in warm, moist areas.

Mostly Jock itch occurs when there is regular friction from clothes and there is prolonged wetness in the groin area, for example from sweating in this region.

Jock itch may be contagious. It can be passed from one person to the other either by direct skin-to-skin contact or contact with unwashed clothing of the infected person.

Sometimes Jock itch can be confused with Candidal intertrigo. This is also an infection of the skin caused by Candida albicans, more specifically located between intertriginous folds of adjacent skin, which can be present in the groin or scrotum, and be indistinguishable from fungal infections caused by Tinia. However, candidal infections tend to both appear and disappear with treatment more quickly.


  • Itching in groin, thigh skin folds, or anus
  • Red, raised, scaly patches that may blister and ooze — The patches often have sharply-defined edges and are often redder around the outside with normal skin tone in the center
  • Abnormally dark or light skin


Though Jock itch usually responds to self-care within a couple of weeks but if your infection lasts longer than 2 weeks and it is severe, or frequently returns then it is better to see a doctor.

Other treatments are as follows:

  • Keep the skin clean and dry.
  • Don’t wear clothing that rubs and irritates the area.
  • Apply topical over-the-counter antifungal or drying powders, such as those that contain miconazole, clotrimazole, or tolnaftate.

Jock itch usually stays around the creases in the upper thigh and does not involve the scrotum or penis. Jock itch may spread to the anus, causing anal itching and discomfort.

Other causes of itching in the groin include:

  • Lichen simplex chronicus
  • Eczema
  • Pubic lice
  • Chemical irritation


  • Keep the groin area clean and dry.
  • Don’t wear clothing that rubs and irritates the area. Avoid tight-fitting and rough-textured clothing.
  • Wear loose-fitting underwear.
  • Wash athletic supporters frequently.
  • After bathing, apply antifungal or drying powders if you are susceptible to jock itch.




Molluscum contagiosum (contagiosa) is a commonly found skin infection, especially among children, which looks like small, pearl shaped, pinkish white eruptions on skin. It is a viral infection.  It is also found in adults who are immuno-deficient due to some reason. Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin disorder caused by a superficial skin infection with the poxvirus. It is not caused by bacteria, yeasts, or fungi. Diet does not seem to affect molluscum contagiosum. The virus commonly spreads through skin-to-skin contact. This includes sexual contact or touching or scratching the bumps and then touching the skin.


  • A characteristic feature is a shiny, smooth, skin- colored bump with a central dell or pinhead-sized opening.
  • It starts showing or localized in body areas like face, trunk etc.
  • Some bumps may be red or dry and have itchy light red rashes indication inflammation.
  • The skin lesion commonly has a central core or plug of white, cheesy or waxy material


In people with normal immune systems, the disorder usually goes away on its own over a period of months to years. Molluscum contagiosum is a self-limiting condition; which means that it gets cured if untreated. However, in that case, it may take up to six months. Some treatment measures may shorten the duration and reduce the changes of spread. It is contagious until the bumps are gone-which, if untreated, may be up to 6 months or longer. Treatment for molluscum contagiosum is not always mandatory. The lesions often disappear by themselves and heal without scarring unless infected by bacteria. Removal of lesions reduces the rate of spread to other people as well as from one part of the body to another, which happens by touching the lesions.

Its treatment includes three types:

  • General treatment is normal treatment and must be done regularly to prevent multiplying of the virus, if the top part of lesion containing virus has been removed then the infection is finished.
  • Surgical treatment involves two types of therapy and they are: cryotherapy, laser therapy
  • The last treatment is a Homeopathic treatment.

“Hepatitis” means inflammation of the liver and also refers to a group of viral infections that affect the liver. The most common types are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. The hepatitis B virus is a small DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. The hepatitis B virus causes hepatitis B in humans. Related viruses in this family cause hepatitis in ducks, ground squirrels and woodchucks. Hepatitis D is a type of viral hepatitis caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), which needs the hepatitis B virus to exist. Only people who are already infected with hepatitis B can be infected with hepatitis D.

This can be caused through:

  • Infected blood, sex, and needles
  • From an infected mother to her newborn
  • Get the hepatitis B vaccine


Hepatitis B is caused by infection with the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The incubation period from the time of exposure to onset of symptoms is 6 weeks to 6 months. HBV is found in highest concentrations in blood and in lower concentrations in other body fluids Hepatitis B is spread through contact with infected blood, through sex with an infected person, and from mother to child during childbirth, whether the delivery is vaginal or via cesarean section.

The cause of this condition is an infection with the hepatitis D virus. This virus is a RNA virus that belongs to the genus Deltavirus. Once inside the body, the virus enters liver cells, where it begins to make millions of copies of itself.


Acute hepatitis B is the period of illness that occurs during the first one to four months after acquiring the virus. Only 30% to 50% of adults develop significant symptoms during acute infection. Early symptoms are fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, jaundice. When the phase gets worse the symptoms may follow, circulation problems, dark urine, headache, drowsiness etc.


The hepatitis B vaccine offers the best protection. All infants and unvaccinated children, adolescents, and at-risk adults should be vaccinated. There is no effective treatment for either Hepatitis D.