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Normochromic Anemia

Normochromic  Anemia is a type of medical condition in which the number of red blood cells is within the normal range and they are normal colored and sized also. It includes hemolytic anemia, aplastic posthemorrhagic and anemia related to chronic diseases.

It is also called as Normocytic Anemia. Its diagnosis based on morphology characteristics is made on blood film and values of blood counts which needs to be complete and sufficient. This condition can be due to fall in number of RBCs or red blood cells or can be due to red cell hemolysis and hemorrhage (blood loss).The major features of acute blood loss are peptic ulceration of stomach or bowel ,ulcerative lesions of other types and trauma. Treatment of blood loss includes replacement by transfusion and proper steps directed against the cause. Major cause of hemorrhage is gastrointestinal or genitourinary tracts secondary to any type of disease related to these systems. Other factors leading to above condition is bleeding disorders von will brand disease or hemophilia.

Acute red cell breakdown (Hemolytis) may occur due to heemoglobinopathies, red cell enzymopathies, acquired platelet disorders, HUS, DIC and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Significant causes can be hypo plastic /aplastic(bone marrow failure) anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. One has to treat the cause of anemia and not the anemia alone. The overall levels of hemoglobin are increased in this type of anemia.

When the count of reticulocyte is decreased then malignancy and hypo proliferative anemia takes place and in reverse case, increased reticulocyte count, acute blood loss takes place and coombs test is conducted. If the coombs test is positive then intracorpuscular and extra corpuscular defects takes place. In particular intracorpuscular defects, abnormal hemoglobin, enzyme and membrane defects occur.

Normocytic anemia results because of impaired red cells production and in failure of kidney when there is a deficiency of erythropoietin, the major factor in body that accelerates red cell production. In these sorts of condition, the life duration of the red cell may be reduced slightly but reason for cause of anemia is failure of production of red cells.

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