Arthritis is known as joint inflammation that occurs in one or the other joints. The area where two bones meet is known as joint. There are more than 100 kinds of arthritis. One of the common forms of arthritis is the Hemorrhagic Arthritis.

The cartilage is also broken down in this kind of arthritis. The joints are usually protected by the cartilage and thus it is allowed to move smoothly. Shock is also absorbed by the cartilage.  Without the normal cartilage, the bones are rubbed together. Thus a lot of swelling and pain is caused in the joints along with stiffness and inflammation.  In hemorrhagic arthritis, the joint inflammation results from:

  • Broken bone
  • Auto immune disease
  • General wear and tear on joints
  • Infection usually due to a virus or bacteria

The inflammation of joints usually goes away after the cause goes away or is treated. However, sometimes, it doesn’t go away.  The occurrence of this arthritis may be found in men and women. This type of arthritis is very common.

This is mainly caused by trauma. If trauma is absent, it is suggested that the cause of it is the presence of bleeding diatheses, such as coagulopathy or hemophilia. Other rare causes include pigmented villonodular synoyitis or joint neoplasm. Acute cases of this are seen in male patients with classic hemophilia.

The most commonly affected area is the knee. Then it is followed by the ankle and the knee. Large joints may also be involved. The bleeding is initiated by some degree of joint trauma. Therapy for hemorrhagic arthritis involves replacing the deficient clotting factor.  It also involves the aspiration of hemarthrosis in some cases as well as immobilization and analgesia. In severe hemorrhage, repeat doses of clotting factor may be necessary.

Blastomycosis is a very rare infection. The development of it can be seen when people breathe in a fungus named as Blastomyces dermatitidis. This is usually found in the soil and wood.

There are many causes of blastomycosis. When the Blastomyces dermatitidis particles are inhaled, one can get this disease. This fungus is usually found in the moist soil. Most particularly it is found in areas where there is rotting vegetation. The entrance of the fungus in the body is through the lungs and infection is caused. Then there is a spread of fungus to other parts of the body. The joints, bones and skin may be affected by the infection.

Blastomycosis is very rare. However, it is very common in the south eastern and central United States, Africa, Saudi Arabia, Israel and India.

The most common risk factor is being around the infected soils. People who have had an organ transplant or HIV are also affected. This disease affects men more than that of women.

There are various symptoms of this disease.

However, there are no symptoms of lung infection. As the infection spreads, symptoms are noticed. These include:

  • Chest pain
  • Bone pain
  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Uneasiness, ill feeling or general discomfort
  • Joint pain
  • Night sweats
  • Muscle pain
  • Rash
  • Sweating
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unintentional weight loss

The exams and tests include:

  • Chest x-ray
  • Chest CT scan
  • Skin biopsy
  • Sputum culture and examination
  • Urine culture
  • Tissue biopsy

The treatment may include medications that are needed for blastomycosis infection. This infection is present in the lungs and becomes very severe. As the severity of disease increases, the infection spreads outside the lungs. Sometimes, the doctor may also prescribe anti-fungals.

Viral arthritis is the inflammation and swelling that is caused to the joints due to a viral infection. There are specific causes of viral arthritis.  Sometimes, this may be a symptom of virus-related illness. Usually, it is disappeared on its own and doesn’t have any long lasting effects. It may sometimes occur due to:

  • Dengue virus
  • Enterovirus
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • HIV
  • Human Parvovirus
  • Mumps
  • Rubella

The occurrence of the disease may also be found due to the immunization with rubella vaccine. This is a very common form of discomfort.  There are only few people who have developed arthritis. The establishment of risk factors is not yet seen.  The main symptoms of this condition are the swelling of joints and joint pain.

There are many tests and exams that are conducted for showing joint inflammation. A blood test may also be required. This may help in the detection of viruses. In some cases, there can be a removal of a small amount of fluid from the joints for determining the causes of inflammation.

For relieving discomfort, pain medicines may be prescribed by the doctor. Anti-inflammatory or antiviral medications may also be prescribed by the doctor. If the joint inflammation is very severe, pain will be relieved when there is aspiration of fluid from joints.

The outlook or outcome is usually very good. There is a disappearance of most viral arthritis within several weeks or days. This usually happens when the viral related disease goes away. There are usually no possible complications of this disorder.  The medical professional should be contacted at the right time. An appointment with the doctor should be taken if the lasting of the arthritis symptoms is generally more than a few weeks.

There is no way of preventing viral arthritis.

The bacteria named Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause Tuberculous arthritis. There are many few people who develop this kind of arthritis. The joints that are often involved are:

  • Hips
  • Ankles
  • Spine
  • Wrists
  • Knees

In many cases only one joint is involved. The TB in which spine is involved is also known as Pott’s disease. More than half of TB related bone infections are made up by it.

The symptoms include:

  • Excessive sweating at night
  • Decreased movements in joints
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Tender joints, joint swelling
  • Muscle spasms
  • Weakness, numbness and tingling in muscles
  • Loss of appetite or weight loss

The condition starts very slowly and usually only one joint is involved in it. A physical examination must be used for showing the inflammation and swelling of the joints.  Other tests include:

  • Biopsy of the joint for detecting the bacteria
  • Aspiration of fluid in joints
  • CT scan of spine
  • Chest x-ray
  • Joint x-rays
  • Tuberculin skin test

The main aim of treatment is the curing of infection with drugs that help in fighting the TB bacteria. A combination of several drugs is involved in active TB. There are many combinations of drugs. The drugs continue till the lab tests show the best medicines. Drugs which are most commonly used include:

  • Rifamin
  • Isoniazid
  • Ethambutol
  • Pyrazinamide

One needs to take various pills during different times of the day. It may be for six months as well. Taking the pills as per suggested by the doctor is very essential. The nurse or doctor is required by law for reporting TB illness to health department.  The pain will surely be relieved if heat or cold is applied to the joints and painkillers are taken. Surgery may also be needed sometimes.

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis is also called as the Forestier’s disease. It is a spondyloathropathy. It is not an inflammatory disease. The principal manifestation is the ossification and calcification of spinal ligaments. Various abnormalities are seen. The most common one is the bilateral calcification that is seen on both the sides of thoracic spine.

The exact cause is still unknown. There are many significant factors such as dietary, long term use of anti-depressants and mechanical factors. These factors are correlated. However there is no cause or effect. The spin is curved forward due to the fusion of vertebral column.

There is one distinctive feature of Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. This includes the linear calcification of antero-medial aspect of thoracic spine. The occurrence of this disease is usually found in people who are above 60 years of age. It is very rare in the age groups of 40’s and 30’s. The spread of this disease can be seen to other joints of the body as well. This includes the shoulders, neck, hips, ribs, pelvis, ankles and knees.

As the disease progresses, the complications increase. The complications include paralysis, disphagia and pulmonary infections. This disease is very similar to that of ankylosing spondylitis.  They are two separate diseases. The latter one is a genetic disease and the organs are affected by it. However, there is no indication of genetic link in Forestier’s disease. Other than the lungs, no other organs are affected.

This can sometimes be seen as a radiological abnormality and it is usually without any symptoms. The most common complaint is the thoracic spine pain. The occurance is seen in 80 percent of the people. People may also notice morning stiffness. There is increased incidence of dysphagia as well. The treatment options also vary to a great extent. NSAID’s such as Naproxen and ibuprofen can be used for treating the condition.

Felty’s syndrome is a complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Three conditions are present. These include an enlarged spleen, low white blood count and rheumatoid arthritis. The syndrome is not very common. Less than 1 percent of the patients are affected.

There are some symptoms of felty’s syndrome. People have more infections such as skin infections and pneumonia as compared to average people. The susceptibility to the infections increases and the attribution of this is done to the low white blood count. This is a characteristic of Felty’s syndrome. The complication of Felty’s syndrome increases if there are ulcers over the legs and skin.

The exact cause of Felty’s syndrome is not known. However, this is developed due to rheumatoid arthritis. There is a production of white blood cells in the bone marrow. Patients with Felty’s syndrome have an active bone marrow function. The storage of white cells is excessive in the spleen of a patient with Felty’s syndrome. This is very true in patients that have antibodies against white blood cells.

There is no single test for diagnosing Felty’s syndrome. The diagnosis is done on the basis of presence of 3 conditions. There are many patients with rheumatoid arthritis antibodies. Patients may not always require a treatment of Felty’s syndrome. The management of underlying rheumatoid arthritis is done in a standard fashion.  There are many treatments that are used for patients with recurring infections, ulcer in legs and active arthritis. These include modifying drugs such as azathioprine and methotrexate.

Patients who have severe infectious diseases are benefited by weekly injections that have a stimulating factor. This is usually the granulocyte stimulating factor or the GSF. The amount of white blood cells is increased by it. The surgical removal of spleen can also be performed for various reasons. However, the evaluation is not yet done by long-term research studies.

Sjogren’s syndrome is a disease that occurs in the moisture-producing glands. These glands include the salivary glands as well as the tear glands. There is an infiltration of these glands with the white blood cells. These cells are an essential part of the body’s immune system. The glands are affected and less moisture is produced.  This leads to the dryness of mouth and eyes.

In some cases infiltration of internal organs such as the nervous system, kidneys and the lungs is also seen. Sometimes the intestines and liver are also infiltrated. Because of this, multiple organs are affected. A wide variety of symptoms can be caused.

The occurrence of sjogren’s syndrome is seen in people who have suffered from rheumatic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma. This is also known as secondary sjogren’s syndrome. When the occurrence of this syndrome is without any rheumatic disorder, it is known as primary sjogren’s syndrome.

About 3 percent of the population is affected by this syndrome. The condition  has a presence throughout the world and in all ethnic groups. Anyone can be struck with this disorder. However, elderly women and middle-aged women are more likely to be affected.

The exact cause of sjogren’s syndrome is not known. An auto immune response is given by the moisture producing glands. Thus the cells of the body are mistakenly attacked by the immune system. The gland can be damaged by the infiltration by lymphocytes. What causes it is not yet known. But this is surely a combination of environmental factors as well as genetic factors.

The main symptoms of this syndrome are dry mouth and dry eyes. Dryness can be found in other areas as well. These include the skin, airways of lungs vagina and lungs.

Raynaud’s phenomenon is a condition that results in a series of discolorations of the toes and fingers after they are exposed to changes in emotional events or temperature.  There is an abnormal spasm of blood vessels due to which skin discoloration occurs. Thus the supply of blood to local tissues becomes much diminished.

However, due to this diminished blood supply, the digits that are involved turn white.  The lack of oxygen is very prolonged at times. Hence, the digits turn blue. Finally, there is a reopening of blood vessels. Thus, a local “flushing” phenomenon is caused. This causes the digits to turn red. This is a color sequence which is three-phased. Most often, this is seen when a person is exposed to cold temperature. This is a characteristic of Raynaud’s phenomenon.

Women are very frequently affected by Raynaud’s phenomenon. This mainly happens during the second, third and fourth decades of life. This phenomenon can be experienced by people separately or sometimes as a part of rheumatic diseases. When the occurrence is separate, it is known as Raynaud’s disease. When it accompanies other rheumatic diseases it is also known as secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon.

There are many causes of primary as well as secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon. The most contributing factors are nerve sensitivity when exposed to cold and abnormal nerve control of blood vessel diameter. The color changes in of digits have a relation to the initial blood- vessel narrowing which occurs due to the spasm of tiny muscles. The sudden opening or dilation follows this. The thickness of small arteries is microscopic. This leads to abnormal narrowing of blood vessels.

The association of Raynaud’s phenomenon is seen with many conditions. These include rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma. Sometimes it happens due to hormone imbalance, medications, trauma, estrogens etc.

Fibromyalgia is a very chronic condition and a lot of tenderness, stiffness and pain is caused by it in the joints, tendons and muscles. This condition is also characterized by awakening feeling tired, restless sleep, anxiety, chronic fatigue, disturbances in bowel function and depression. It is also known as abbreviated FMS or fibromyalgia syndrome. Formerly it was known as fibrositis.

This disease is very common and the muscles are affected by it. The main cause is still unknown. The tissue inflammation doesn’t involve painful tissues. Therefore, in spite of disabling body pain, deformity or body damage is not developed. Damage to internal body organs is also not caused by Fibromyalgia.

People who have experience pain are not in response to the stimuli. The chances of fibromyalgia increase if the levels of nerve chemicals are elevated. The levels of brain chemical serotonin are very low in the patients who suffer from fibromyalgia. The patient’s central nervous system is also very sensitive. A diffuse disturbance of pain perception is also noticed by the scientists in patients suffering from fibromyalgia.

An impaired non-rapid eye movement is seen in the patients with fibromyalgia. The association of the onset of fibromyalgia is done with infection, trauma and psychological distress.

Many women are predominantly affected by fibromyalgia. The most affected women lie in the age groups of 35 and 55. Even though, very less common, elderly, children and men can also be affected with fibromyalgia.

It can occur independently or can be associated with another disease, such as systemic lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. The prevalence of fibromyalgia varies in different countries. In Sweden and Britain, 1% of the population is affected by fibromyalgia. In the United States, approximately 4% of the population has fibromyalgia. Thus one must take proper care so that the symptoms are reduced.

Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory disorder due to which stiffness and muscle pain are caused specially in the shoulders, neck, thighs, hips and upper arms. The symptoms of this disease can be seen very quickly over some days.

People who have developed polymyalgia rheumatica are usually older than 65 years of age. People of younger age develop this condition very rarely. The symptoms of this condition are improved by anti-inflammatory drugs known as corticosteroids. However, careful monitoring is required for avoiding side effects.

This condition may have a co-existence or a relation with other inflammatory disorders as well. The other disorder is called giant cell arthritis. Visual impairment, headaches and jaw pain might by caused by this. The symptoms and signs of this include:

  • Pain or aches in the shoulders
  • Pain or aches in the lower back, thighs, hips, buttocks, neck etc
  • Tenderness in upper arms
  • Stiffness in some affected areas due to long car rides or prolonged inactivity
  • Stiffness or pain in knees or wrists

Some more general symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Low grade fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Depression
  • Unintended weight loss

The doctor must be consulted if one is experiencing stiffness, pains or aches that:

  • Are new
  • Due to which sleep is disrupted
  • The ability of activities is limited

No one has been able to understand the cause of polymyalgia rheumatica. The stiffness and pain are a result of the activity of proteins and cells that are inflammatory. They are a part of the disease fighting immune system of the body.  This inflammation is mainly in response to a disease or injury. However, collectively these disorders are known as rheumatic diseases. The occurrence of inflammatory activity is found when there is no need for response.