Hypoplastic anemia is a form or type of aplastic anemia which is primarily due to a congenital disorder. Broadly, it is also a part of a broad category of anemia characterized by decreased production of red blood cells. It is also characterized by defective function of the blood-forming organs (such as bone marrow) and is caused by toxic agents such as chemicals or x rays.
Impairment of blood formation, which is manifested in perversion of the formation of the primordial cells from which erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes form in the bone marrow, leads to the development of hypoplastic anemia. A reduction in the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes per unit volume of blood is typical of hypoplastic anemia. Hormone drugs (glucocorticoid and male sex hormones) have a therapeutic effect, and sometimes removal of the spleen is effective. In addition, bone marrow is sometimes transplanted.
Hemolytic anemia is caused by increased hemolysis (the destruction of erythrocytes). Erythrocytes usually live about 120 days. When antibodies against the patient’s own erythrocytes appear, the life-span of the erythrocytes is significantly shortened. Rapid destruction of a large number of erythrocytes occurs; as a result of the decomposition of hemoglobin in the patient, the tissues of the organism take on a yellow pigmentation (jaundice). Immune hemolytic anemia develops; to treat it, hormone drugs (glucocorticoid hormones) are used.
Sometimes acute hemolytic anemia develops in an infant during its birth; this is associated with an incompatibility between the mother’s blood and the infant’s blood. Thus, hereditary forms are common in hemolytic anemia. Their development is associated with genetic impairment of the function of the enzymes which participate in formation of the walls of the erythrocytes or in accumulating the energy necessary for their vital activity and for preserving the walls. Removing the spleen is sometimes effective in hereditary hemolytic anemia.
In the same geographic zones, hereditary anemia associated with impairment of synthesis of the protein part of hemoglobin is widespread. Therapy for all types of anemia including hypoplastic is conducted only after a detailed and precise determination of the diagnosis and form of anemia.