The process of prognosis of prostate depends on the stage of the cancer. The doctor first analyses the results of the tests of the prostate gland and makes a prognosis. There are many tests which are conducted like PSA test and biopsy. Prognosis is the prediction of how a cancer could develop or spread in the body and also of the likelihood that the patient will make a complete recovery.

The prognosis is mostly divided into 2 categories. Either the treatment would be difficult and chances of a successful recovery are low or, the patient responds well to the treatment and makes a full recovery. It is common knowledge that different people respond in different ways to various kinds of treatments. Therefore, there is no fixed rule or benchmark for prognosis of this disease.

There are many things that a doctor that a doctor has to look into and consider, when making a prostate cancer prognosis. Out of the many important points that need attention, some of the most important ones are the medical history of the patient, PSA test results, the volume and location of the cancerous tumor and the Gleason score. Many other factors like the reports on similar cases and their outcomes, helps the doctor take a final decision and make a prostate cancer prognosis.

Results of the prognosis of this type of cancer are measured in 5 years and 10 years of survival terms. The patient’s recommended treatment is also taken into account while considering it. A person in an advanced stage of prostate cancer would most likely have a much lower percentage of five year survival-rate than a patient who was diagnosed right in the early stage.

Some people prefer to live in ignorance about the results of their prostate cancer prognosis. Some people even get confused about what the actual test results mean. There are some others who find it difficult to come to a decision about their course of treatment, until they have a clear idea about the survival outcome which is expected. The best course of action is to discuss this with the doctor, in detail and follow his advice after listening to the pros and the cons.

However, even doctors are not right always. The prognosis can change whether the patient responds to the treatment or not. Also, it is very unpredictable, how a patient responds to certain types of treatment.

Prostate cancer symptoms are not experienced by all patients who suffer from this disease. In many cases, the doctor comes across the prostate cancer during just a routine medical checkup. However, there are some men, who observe abnormalities in their sexual or urinary functions which suggest the problem with the prostate.  In the present times, most men are diagnosed even before any symptoms are seen. It is very important to know about what to look for and the less obvious symptoms.

Common symptoms – It is generally accompanied by many other unique symptoms. This gland is located in the lower part of the pelvis, beneath the bladder. The urine from the bladder passes to the urethra and then passes out. Right at the beginning of this tune, when it leaves the bladder, it passes through this gland, directly. When prostate cancer or any other problem causes the gland to swell, the urethra gets pressed hard and the passage keeps getting narrow till it is completely choked off.

There are 4 main symptoms which are the result of this process.

  1. Frequency – Having to urinate much more frequently than normal.
  2. Urgency – Unable to have the ability to control the urge to urinate.
  3. Nocturnia – The need to get up several times during the night to urinate.
  4. Hesitancy – Difficulty in starting the process.

The symptoms which are mentioned above are widely experienced by all men who suffer from this ailment. The less common symptoms are as follows.

  1. Traces of blood found in semen.
  2. Traces of blood found in urine.
  3. Impotence or the onset of erectile dysfunction.
  4. Pain in bones, especially in areas like the hips, lower back, ribs etc.
  5. Unable to maintain bladder control.

However, these symptoms are not specific to this disease only. But, men should definitely be on the lookout for them.

Whenever one feels the slightest bit of doubt, they should visit their doctor for a complete checkup as it is better to be safe than sorry. Especially, men who are more than 40 years old should be more careful. Most cases of prostate cancer happen only after crossing this age. Those with a history of this disease in the family and African-American men should be even more alert as survey and research has proved that these two groups are most susceptible to this disease. The best course of action is always to seek medical opinion at the earliest.

When a person is diagnosed with prostate cancer, the cancer tissues are examined very carefully under microscopes. The pathologists examine the tissues which are extracted through biopsy and look for the cancer cells. When these cells have been identified, both the grade and the stage of the cancer have to be determined by the doctor. For the correct treatment, it is essential to determine the correct stage of the disease.

The factors that help to determine the stage are as follows.

1.         Size of the area affected and the tumor.

2.         If the cancer has been contained in the prostate or has spread to other body parts.

3.         If so, which other parts of the body have been affected.

The different stages are discussed below.

Stage one – This type cannot be detected when one undergoes a digital rectal-exam. Doctors generally come across it accidentally, during surgery for something else, mostly for benign prostatic-hyperplasia. At this stage, the cancer is contained in the prostate gland. Id can be detected by needle biopsy. Gleason score for this is 6 or less. It generally affects less than one lobe of the gland.

Stage two – This is more serious than the previous stage but the cancer is contained in the prostate gland even in this stage. This is also detected by needle biopsy and the Gleason reading is approximately 7. In some cases, both the prostate gland lobes are affected. It cannot be detected by imaging or DRE. In these cases, the Gleason reading is about 8.

Stage three – in this case, the disease has spread to areas around the prostate. Seminal vessels could be affected but lymph nodes have not been affected yet. The score of Gleason can be anything between two to ten. This is a much more serious stage than the previous one. Treatment should be started immediately.

Stage four – The cancer could have spread to the organs nearby and other muscles. It may even have affected the lymph nodes. There is a high possibility that the cancer has widely spread throughout the body. It can even spread to the bones. Gleason score is between ten and two.

Recurrent stage – The disease has recurred after some time and had not been detected. Areas near the prostate or the prostate gland, itself could be affected. Or the recurrence could happen in a completely unsuspected place like the bones.

Prostate cancer survival rate is the chances that any cancer affected patient has to survive the disease for any period of time. The rates do not indicate definitely, what is going to happen to the patient. The best that can be done is predicted what could happen in the near future. This is done, based on previous instances which are similar. This is useful when the patient or the members of the patient’s family have to choose which mode of treatment to go for. They get a clear picture and know what they should expect. Sometimes, if operation or any treatment is not feasible, they can opt for the medicines which relieve pain, like sedatives.

Generally, men who are more than 50 years old are affected by this disease. Many men suffer from over growth of the prostate gland tissues as they grow old. Mostly, those tissues are benign but in some cases, they contain cancerous cells which are abnormal and lead to cancer of the prostate gland. This disease can stay undetected, in its benign state, for years. The most common and obvious symptoms are erectile dysfunction and difficulty in urinating.

Patients who have surgery tend to stay alive for at least 10 more years than those who go for alternative treatments. This holds true especially in case of the younger patients and for those patients who run have the characteristics of developing a tumor.

Survival rate of prostate cancer is much higher than most other forms of cancer. A recent study has revealed that in the United States of America, only three per cent of the patients succumb to prostate cancer. The survival rate of five years is hundred per cent in the U.S. The ten year and fifteen year survival rates are slightly lower.

In most cases, the Gleason system is followed. It follows the principle of grading, allotted from one to ten. It depends on the degree to which the cancerous tissue cells resemble those in the prostate tissue which is normal. If the score is between 2 to 4, it is considered to be low grade. 5 to 7 is the middle range and 8 to 10 is the high grade. The higher the grade, the more probability there is, of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body. Very few men survive in cases where the prostatic capsule has been breached. However, prostate cancer spreads very slowly and is absolutely treatable.

The word prostate is derived from the Greek word, prostates, which means guardian or protector or the person that which stands before. There is a lot of difference between the prostates of different species. The differences are anatomical, chemical and physiological. The prostate gland secretes a fluid which is somewhat alkaline in nature. It looks white or milky. It makes up about twenty to thirty per cent of the semen volume along with other necessary constituents like the seminal vesicle-fluid and spermatozoa. The alkalinity is necessary to neutralize the environment in the vagina which is acidic. This results in prolonged life span of sperms.

The prostate gland has some very smooth muscles and these help in ejaculation. The secretion varies from species to species. The composition is alkaline fluids and sugar. The amount of protein is lower than one per cent in prostate secretions of humans. The secretions contain zinc too. For the proper working of this gland, male hormones are required.

The prostate gland of a fully grown, healthy man is a little bigger than the size of a walnut. The average weight of this gland is approximately 11 gms, the least being 7 gms and the highest being 16 gms. The urethra is surrounded by it and it is located right beneath the urinary bladder. It is an exocrine organ which is the only one of its kind because it is found right in the middle of the line dividing the body in two identical parts which are the mirror image of each other.

It is mainly pseudo stratified, which means that it is made of cells which are tall and columnar and also, basal cells which are given support by the fibro elastic stroma which has smooth bundles of muscles which are randomly oriented. Inside the prostate gland, the prostatic urethra merges with two ejaculatory ducts. It is not located inside any capsule. There is a fibro muscular band which surrounds it.

This is one of the most important glands in men because it is closely related to two essential bodily functions of intercourse and urination. Any abnormality in these functions can result in serious problems and one might end up in the hospital. Any disease of the prostate gland used to be quite severe. But, medical science and technology has improved by leaps and bounds, and treatment of this gland has become a very simple procedure.

Prostate cancer is the uncontrolled and malignant growth of the cells of the prostate gland. This gland is located below the bladder and helps in controlling urination and in the production of a part of semen. Many men, all around the world and especially in the U.S. die because of this disease every year.

The prostate gland becomes abnormal and starts growing in size, at an uncontrollable rate, resulting in the formation of tumors.  The prostate gland secretes the fluids which are the components of semen along with seminal vesicles and the testicles. It is located right behind the bladder and is approximately, walnut sized. When a tumor grows in this gland, it interferes with proper urinary bladder control and sexual functions.

The first clue which suggests this disease is that the person finds it very difficult to urinate. However, benign prostatic-hyperplasia also known as BPH is a common and non-cancerous ailment of the prostate gland. Even though it has the same symptoms, it does not result in cancer,

The cancerous cells which are found within the prostate are not the deadly ones. However, when there is no treatment and if the tumor gets bigger, some cells break away from the gland and travel to the other parts of the body through blood or lymph. This process is called metastasis. The sites which are most susceptive are lymph nodes, seminal vesicles, bones in the pelvis and hip region and the blood.

New tumors get created and these are the ones which can cause the patient’s death. Males of Western countries suffer the most from this disease. It generally spreads very slowly but if spreads faster if the patient is young. Because of the slow rate of growth, most of the patients die of other diseases or age before the cancer can kill them.

Study has revealed that African-American men are twice as susceptible to prostate cancer as their white counterparts. The mortality rate of the former is also, significantly higher than the latter. African-American men make up the group which runs the highest risk of contracting and dying due to this disease. There are some factors which speed up the process like when a person is more than 55 years old, the hereditary factor, African-American lineage, exposure to rubber or cadmium and a diet which contains a lot of fat. Men, who have a plasma testosterone which is higher than normal, run a higher risk of getting affected by this disease.