The virus that causes mono (Epstein-Barr virus) is not spread as easily as most people think. If you follow these tips, you can reduce the chance of spreading or catching mono.

Mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, a member of the herpes virus family. The disease develops if the virus is encountered for the first time at an age when the response of the body’s immune system is most vigorous (that is, during adolescence and early adult life). The peak incidence of the illness occurs around the ages of 15 and 17.

Mononucleosis spreads by contact with moisture from the mouth and throat of a person who is infected with the virus.

Complications are rare and hospitalization is seldom required when they do occur. The most common complication is dehydration from not drinking enough fluids. Breathing may be obstructed by enlarged tonsils, adenoids and other lymph tissue in the back of the throat. On rare occasions, the enlarged spleen will rupture if the abdomen is hit or strained.

Additionally, the person may develop hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), pericarditis (inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or hemolytic anemia (destruction of the red blood cells).

Diagnosis:

The diagnosis is often obvious from the symptoms and examination of a blood smear, which shows many atypical lymphocytes (white blood cells).There are two general types of blood tests for mono.

The first is called a monospot test (or a spot test). Monospot relies on clumping of horse red blood cells by mononucleosis antibodies presumed to be in a person’s serum. The other test is called the heterophil antibodies test. This test looks for antibodies (proteins produced by the immune system to counter the virus) that possess the unique ability to cause clumping of red cells taken from sheep’s blood.

A physical examination sometimes reveals an enlarged liver and/or enlarged spleen, or the liver and spleen may simply be tender when gently pressed.

Defensive Measures:

There is no vaccine for Epstien-Barr Virus. There are steps to prevent mono:

  • Wash hands frequently.
  • Avoid close contact with those who have mono.
  • Do not let your child share cups, bowls, glasses, or utensils with someone who is infected.
  • Never allow your child to share a toothbrush.
  • Use disposable paper cups and paper towels in the bathroom.
  • Do not share toys, teething rings, or similar items.
  • Frequently wash and sterilize pacifiers and bottles.
  • Disinfect shared surfaces, such as tabletops, kitchen counters, and play equipment.
  • Make it clear, especially to teenagers, that kissing a person infected with mono is off-limits.

Lymphatic Infection:  Lymphatic system can be involved in a wide range of infectious conditions, viral, bacterial, mycotic and parasitic. Mostly this involvement is transient, the lymphatic system serving as part of the route utilized by micro- organisms in their spread throughout the body. As such, enlargement of the lymph nodes may often reflect the spread of an infection from a local entry point. In many infections the effect on  the lymphatics may be both consistent and clinically marked.

The lymphadenopathy may be local or generalized and lymphadenopathy is or can be a significant feature of acute HIV infection, primary Herpes simplex, some rickettsial infections, tularaemia, plague, cat-scratch fever due to Bartonella henselae, primary syphilis, lymphogranuloma venereum, chancroid, leptospirosis, brucellosis, relapsing fever, African trypan- osomiasis (e.g. Winterbottom’s Sign), Chagas’ disease, and leishmaniasis.

Charters also lists schistosomiasis (during the Katayama phase), paragonimiasis, onchocerciasis, trichinosis, leprosy, and sporotrichosis as causes of lymphadenopathy. However, the most significant and noteworthy involvement of the lymphatic system is seen in the Glandular Fever Syndrome and in Lymphatic filariasis.

Swollen Lymph Nodes:

Lymph nodes (erroneously called lymph glands) are a part of the lymphatic system, a component of the body’s immune system. Swollen lymph nodes may signal an infection.

There are several groups of lymph nodes, which are small, bean-shaped, soft nodules of tissue. The ones most frequently enlarged or swollen are found in the neck, under the chin, in the armpits, and in the groin. Lymph nodes can swell and become tender. Infection is the most common cause of lymph node swelling. The lymph nodes’ primary purpose is to fight off infections.

Identification: Your lymph nodes are located behind the ears, the armpit, the neck, the groin, under the jaw and chin, and on the back of the head. The main purpose for lymph nodes is to fight infection and foreign substances.

Types: The most common cause of lymph node swelling is infection somewhere in the body. Infections that may cause swelling of the lymph nodes are ear infections, abscess, colds or flu, gingivitis, mononucleosis, mouth sores, sexually transmitted diseases, tonsillitis, skin infections and tuberculosis.

Control and Treatment: Swollen lymph nodes from an infection usually are treated with antibiotics, pain medication, anti-inflammatory medications to control swelling, and cool compresses to reduce swelling. If there is any abscess of the swollen lymph node, surgery may be necessary to drain the infection.

Epstein – Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the herpes virus family, also a human tumor virus and one of the most common human viruses. The virus takes place worldwide, infects more than 95% of the world’s population, and most people become infected with EBV sometime during their lives. These infections usually cause no symptoms which are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood.

However, valid laboratory evidence for continued active EBV infection is seldom found in patients. Then illness should be investigated further to determine if it meets the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome, or CFS. This process includes ruling out other causes of chronic illness or fatigue.

It causes infectious mononucleosis adolescence or young adulthood. Complications occur with mono including a temporarily enlarged spleen or inflamed liver, the spleen may rupture, producing sharp pain on the left side of the abdomen, a symptom that warrants immediate medical attention. EBV may also cause significant destruction of the body’s red blood cells or platelets.

EBV also establishes a lifelong dormant infection in some cells of the body’s immune system. Most individuals exposed to people with infectious mono have previously been infected with EBV and are not at risk for infectious mono. In addition, EBV is transmitted due to requires close contact with the saliva (found in the mouth) of an infected person. Transmission of this virus through the air or blood does not normally occur.

The incubation period, or the time from infection to appearance of symptoms, ranges from 4 to 6 weeks. Persons with infectious mono may be able to spread the infection to others for a period of weeks. However, no special precautions or isolation procedures are recommended, since the EBV is also found frequently in the saliva of healthy people. In fact, many healthy people can carry and spread the virus intermittently for life. These people are usually the primary reservoir for person-to-person transmission. For this reason, transmission of the virus is almost impossible to prevent.

EBV remains dormant or latent in a few cells in the throat and blood for the rest of the person’s life even though the symptoms of infectious mono resolve in 1 or 2 months. Periodically, the virus can reactivate and is commonly found in the saliva of infected persons. This reactivation usually occurs without symptoms of illness.

Mononucleosis is mainly caused by this Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and this is a member of herpes virus family. This ubiquitous, highly contagious organism is a member of the Herpesviridae family of viruses (other viruses in this family include herpes simplex, varicella zoster, cytomegalovirus, and human herpes virus 6 & 7). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can sometimes also cause an illness with the symptoms of mononucleosis.

EBV creates a lifelong dormant infection in some cells of the body’s immune system. A late event in a very few carriers of this virus is the emergence of Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, two rare cancers that are not normally found in the United States. EBV appears to play an important role in these malignancies, but is probably not the sole cause of disease.

Human Herpes Virus: Herpes virus is the leading cause of human viral disease, second only to influenza and cold viruses. They are capable of causing overt disease or remaining silent for many years only to be reactivated, for example as shingles. The name herpes comes from the Latin herpes which, in turn, comes from the Greek word herpein which means to creep. This reflects the creeping or spreading nature of the skin lesions caused by many herpes virus types.

There are at least 25 viruses in the family Herpesviridae (currently divided into three sub-families). Eight or more herpes virus types are known to infect man frequently.

Herpes Virus Types That Infect Humans

  • Herpes simplex virus  Type 1 (HSV-1)
  • Herpes simplex virus  Type 2 (HSV-2)
  • Epstein Barr virus (EBV)
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
  • Human herpes virus 6 (exanthum subitum or roseola infantum)
  • Human herpes virus 8 (Kaposi’s sarcoma-associate herpes virus).

Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is the virus that most commonly causes the childhood disease roseola. Two genetically distinct variants have been discovered: human herpes virus 6A (HHV-6A) and human herpes virus 6B (HHV-6B). HHV-6B has been associated with a variety of viral illnesses, including exanthem subitum (roseola infantum), mononucleosis syndromes, focal encephalitis, and pneumonitis.

This virus shows the closest homology with cytomegalovirus and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7).  HHV-6 infection in infants is the most common cause of fever-induced seizures. Infection in adults is seen primarily in immunocompromised hosts who have undergone solid organ transplants or in those with HIV infection. Reactivation of latent HIV infection attributable to HHV-6 infection has been reported. No prophylaxis or treatment for infection with HHV-6 presently exists. The great majority of HHV-6 infections is silent or appears as a general mild febrile illness.

A patient has become infected by herpes virus, the infection remains for life. The initial infection may be followed by latency with subsequent reactivation. Herpes viruses infect most of the human population and persons living past middle age usually have antibodies to most of the above herpes viruses with the exception of HHV-8.

Herpes virus replication:

i) Binding to the cell surface: As with many other viruses, cell tropism is determined by the availability of the correct receptor on the surface of the cell to be infected. The virus fuses with the cell membrane at ambient pH and so there is the possibility of syncytia formation between infected cells and therefore cell to cell transmission even in the presence of neutralizing humoral antibodies. This means that cell-mediated immunity is important in suppressing herpes virus infections.

ii) Nucleocapsid enters cytoplasm: The tegument-surrounded nucleocapsid is carried to the nuclear membrane where the nucleocapsid binds. The DNA genome then enters the nucleus.

iii) Transcription: This is a very complex process, as might be expected from the large size of genome. There are three classes of proteins that need to be made for the production of a mature virus.

Mono is known as “Mononucleosis” is a type of infectious viral responsible for fever, soar throat and enlarged lymphs. Further to that, there are many complications and risk factors that are associated with this health condition.

Common complications for mononucleosis are noted down as under:

  • Mild inflammation of the liver, or hepatitis.
  • An enlarged spleen occurs in mono. Mono develops traumatic rupture of the spleen. Symptoms of this are a severe pain in the left upper abdomen, suddenly.
  • Swelling in the throat and tonsils obstructs airway passage, bleeding due to decrease rate of clotting of blood, anemia, and heart burn.
  • A rare complication of mono is obstruction in breathing due to swollen throat.
  • A decrease inn number of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia).
  • Decrease in number of neutrophils (white blood cell (WBC) that helps fight against infection).
  • Hepatitis occurrence in patient not to consider as serious.

There are some rare complications need to be cured must as soon as possible. These rare complications affect the patient severly. Some of these complications are short listed bellow:

•           Hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells).

•           Pericarditis (inflammation of sac around heart and its neighbouring

•           muscles)

•           Myocarditis (heart muscle)

•           Encephalitis (Brain and its constituent muscles)

•           Spleen rupturation

•           Spinal chord disturbance

•           Problems related to cardiac

•           Lymphatic cancer (Burkitt’s lymphoma)

•           Cancer of throat

•           Cancer in nose

EBV is assisted with some types of cancers, most commonly “lymphomas”. Victims are oftenly those people whose immune systems have been compromised due to disease or immune suppressive drugs. EBV infection has also been found to be associated with two types of cancer:

•           Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (cancer of the pharynx and nose)

•           Burkitt’s lymphoma of the jaw among children.

Clinical Diagnosis

Mono can be diagnosed by the ways of medical history given by the patient, and the physical examination which is done. This is known as a “clinical diagnosis”, and here doctor generally does not need a wide variety of expensive.

Doctor will look at the symptoms and the age of the patient because people infected with EBV are more likely to develop mono if they are a teenager or young adult.

A physical evaluation is made based on the symptoms and possible exposure to the disease by asking questions and by examining signs of the infection such as looking at the back of the throat, listen to the lungs and checking the skin and pressing on abdomen.

A doctor examines enlarged lymph nodes. The spleen often is enlarged during mono infections, although this can be difficult to determine without testing – unless the enlargement is significant.

Blood Test

If a doctor is unsure of the diagnosis of mono through clinical diagnosis, there are some basic blood tests available such as:

A Monospot Test involves a blood test. Blood will be analyzed in a laboratory for antibodies. Antibodies are a specific component of immune system that fights against infection. If body detects EBV, it can develop a type of antibody called Heterophile Antibodies. If Heterophile Antibodies in blood. Then mono spot test is “positive.” A positive mono spot test accompanied by the mono symptoms results in a diagnosis of infectious mono. However, mono spot tests can be false-positive, about 10-15% of the time.

It is possible for the Monospot Test  to come back negative early in the course of the infection (False negative). If the mononucleosis test is negative, your doctor may test for an infection with Cytomegalo Virus (CMV) or other organisms. CMV can cause a mono-like illness.

If mono spot test is negative but the patient have all the symptoms of mono, more testing will be needed to make a diagnosis.

Complete Blood Count Test (CBC) may be done to rule out other infections or complications of mono.

Liver Test may be done to find out whether the virus has affected the liver. A blood chemistry test may reveal abnormalities in liver function.

Mononucleosis is the disease which shows its symptoms really easy. We can know this disease by its symptoms easily. If a person is having this disease he/she may knows about the advantages of this disease. We now will discuss some symptoms and signs of mono in this article.

Any disease which is serious or not a complex in series, that disease will show its symptoms and signs before occurring in a person. That is the only way and we can say that a chance to get precautions here for mono, that is nutshell of these kinds of diseases.

Symptoms of Mononucleosis:

Typically, the initial symptoms and signs of mono occur about 10 days after exposure in children and 30 to 50 days after exposure in adults. These symptoms include lack of energy, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite and chills.

After three to five days, any combination of the more intense symptoms and signs may become present, including:

•           Severe sore throat

•           Fever

•           Swollen glands in the neck, armpits and groin

•           Nausea

•           Vomiting

•           Upset stomach

•           Enlarged spleen

•           Enlarged liver

•           Swollen eyelids

•           Swelling around the eyes

•           Rash

•           Weight loss

•           Drowsiness

•           Muscle aches or stiffness

•           Less frequently occurring symptoms and signs include:

•           Mild jaundice (a yellowish tint to skin)

•           Neck stiffness

•           Sensitivity to light/FONT

•           Cough

•           Shortness of breath

•           Chest pain

•           Rapid and/or irregular heart rate

•           Nosebleeds

•           Hives

If you feel any of these symptoms in this disease, then you should go for a doctor soon. Because there is an only person who can save your health is your doctor. You must choose an option whether the regular doping of medicals or advice of your doctor.

Mono transmission means to be a form of disease which tells that how fast a disease can spread and how we can control it over the strategy. There are many ways of mono transmission.

  • Mononucleosis virus is transmitted from person-to-person contact. Saliva is the primary method of transmitting mono.
  • Infectious mono develops by closely kissing hence it is called “kissing disease” so prevalent form of transmission among teenagers.
  • People who have already been infected with the virus that causes mono — Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) probably won’t get re infected because they develop immunity. Although it is possible for the virus to “reactivate,” it is not because of someone infects all over again. It is because in rare cases the original virus can flare up and cause symptoms a second time.
  • Infected person can also pass the mono by coughing or sneezing, causing small droplets of infected saliva and/or mucus which can be inhaled by others in the air.
  • Mono can also be transmitted from one person to another by sharing food or beverages from the same container or utensil and even things like lip gloss, lipstick, or lip balm since contact with infected saliva may result.
  • Most people have been exposed to the virus as children, and as a result of the exposure, they have developed immunity to the virus. It is of note that most people who are exposed to the EBV don’t ever develop mono. The incubation period for mono, meaning the time from the initial viral infection until the appearance of symptoms, is between four and six weeks. During an infection, a person is likely able to transmit the virus to others for at least a few weeks. Since it takes about 4 to 6 weeks for symptoms to appear an infected person can spread the virus without even knowing it.
  • The people, who have had mono and have recovered, will continue to exude the EBV in their saliva for years due to periodic “reactivations” of the viral infection. Since healthy people without symptoms also secrete the virus during reactivation incidents throughout their lifetime, isolation of people infected with EBV is not necessary. It is currently believed that these healthy people, who nevertheless secrete EBV particles, are the primary reservoir for transmission of EBV among humans.
  • Indications of the mono kissing disease (mono / glandular fever) usually leave within 1 or 2 months. But as a carrier of the EBV (like most of the population) it will take the EBV for the rest of the life (the EBV will remain latent or dormant in the body).

To know about mono is not meant to say that we have known about its factors. Basically mono or mononucleosis is a kind of virus which spreads with EBV (Epstein-Barr virus). This is the main cause in childhood which spreads mono as a complex disease. There are some more risk factors which affects a human while he/she is having mono as diseases. A person can get many infections and these infections are called as risk factor. Basically risk factor dictates about the characteristic which is not in the favor of health.

Risk factors:

If a person whose saliva is infected with mono and any kind of disease which is touch and get, then it is serious to be in contact of him/her physically. If a person is having drowsiness and getting fever with it again, then it should not maintain the regular system of body, because he is infected by the virus.

If a person is having drowsiness and getting fever with it again, then it should not maintain the regular system of body, because he is infected by the virus. Loss of appetite and muscle aches or stiffness leads to mono. Swollen and spleen swollen is the big issue there. There is a problem with this disease that if anybody who is having virus in his salvia and kisses someone non-patient person.

A patient who is having this virus may contain chest pain with his health. Cough and normal headache is the big issue in this disease. We can think it as that reactivation of this virus doesn’t contain much power which it use dot have before.

If the counting of WBC (white blood cells) is high form RBC (red blood cells), then immune system can maintain this counter in accordance to body power which is needed by the person’s health.

This is really very serious about the healthy person. The virus of EBV remains inactive throughout the life. But it can be reactivated time to time. We can think it as that reactivation of this virus doesn’t contain much power which it use dot have before.

A symptom dictates risk factor of mono that includes the inherited features of these kinds of treatments. It says that” It creates alarm by showing high temperature and low fitness of body. This is not possible to get these symptoms at the moment when we got this disease”.

Some risk factors to be noticed:

These kinds of risk factors are well ionized with schools and colleges, groups of guys are not aware about this disease. This may leads to another risk factor.

We may have diabetes as the gift of this disease, somehow peoples are aware about diabetes and they know how to handle it well according to the access of disease.

Organ transplant may leads to other symptoms these are complex here in these diseases.

Chemotherapy and AIDS may plant to another way of these diseases; awareness of people is the only and significant way which tells us to be protected before facing the attack of any disease.

Mono or mononucleosis is a kind of virus which spreads with EBV (Epstein-Barr virus). This is the main cause in childhood which spreads mono as a complex disease. However we came to know about another virus named as “cytomegalovirus”. It may also cause mono like syndrome in Children.

The virus EBV is a house of infection, which affects immune system of body. This can really create syndrome into human. This can create infection and this infection increases white blood cells into human body. These white blood cells are called as mononuclear leukocytes. This also spreads a disease that is again mononucleosis.

We can discuss many reasons that lead mono as:

  • If a person whose saliva is infected with mono and any kind of disease which is touch and get, then it is serious to be in contact of him/her physically. There is a problem with this disease that if anybody who is having virus in his salvia and kisses any non-patient person. Then the person who was not in contact of mono would be another patient of mono form the next moment.
  • Well this is not possible to remove EBV’s infections, because there are many people who all are having its symptoms and spreading on to others. After when the virus enters into human body then immune system of body acts like against of body. This is really very serious about the healthy person. The virus of EBV remains inactive throughout the life. But it can be reactivated time to time. We can thinks it as that reactivation of this virus doesn’t contain much power which it use dot have before. So we don’t need any clinical treatment.
  • If a person is having drowsiness and getting fever with it again, then it should not maintain the regular system of body, because he is infected by the virus. Loss of appetite and muscle aches or stiffness leads to mono. Swollen and spleen swollen is the big issue there.
  • A patient who is having this virus may contain chest pain with his health. Cough and normal headache is the big issue in this disease. However there are many treatments which can be done there in against to this disease. Immune system of body is there to maintain body and to work against the anti systems of body. This system may handle this virus; it can rescue human body from getting virus from blood cells.
  • It creates alarm by showing high temperature and low fitness of body. This is not possible to get these symptoms at the moment when we got this disease. if the counting of WBC ( white blood cells ) is high form RBC ( red blood cells), then immune system can maintain this counter in accordance to body power which is needed by the person’s health.